Homosexual gay magazines pdf

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The heterosexuality is a predominant sexual orientation (and in many countries also obligatory) characterized by the desire and the attraction towards persons of the opposite sex. A heterosexual man feels attracted by the women, while a heterosexual woman feels attraction for the men.

In addition to referring to a sexual orientation, the term heterosexuality also refers to the sexual behavior between individuals of different sex. Many animal species (those that have sex and internal fertilization), between which the human species is, reproduce (in general) by means of heterosexual relations, in contrast to those in which all the individuals possess both sexes, which are hermaphrodite.

When the heterosexuality defines a social system it is studied under the name of heteronormatividad and constitutes a violation of the sexual rights and of the human rights in the terms of the beginning of Yogyakarta adult magazines pdf. The homosexuality and the bisexuality, between others, also are part like sexual orientations of the human being, and be which is the one that characterizes the individual, this one must be treated by the same respect to which any person has a right and not be forced to live expressing a sexuality that it does not have; to force him himself and/or to be forced for third to live through a sexuality opposite to the one that feels can represent significant psychological and emotional problems in the mental health of the individual.


The homosexuality (homo "equal", and of the Latin sexus "sex") is a sexual orientation that defines sex as the interaction or sexual, affective, emotional and sentimental attraction towards individuals of the same Etymologically, the homosexual word is a hybrid of the Greek homos (that in fact it means "equally" and not, as he might believe, derived from the Latin noun homo, "man") and of the Latin adjective sexualis, what suggests a sentimental and sexual relation between persons of the same sex.

Gay in Spain is used to refer to the homosexual men, and the term lesbian to refer to the women homosexual. From the international scientific community thinks that the homosexuality is not an illness, from for the OMS. Nevertheless, the legal and social situation of the people that homosexual autonames changes very much of one country to other and often it is a polemics object.

The homosexual term was used for the first time in by Karl-Maria Kertbeny, but it was the book Psychopathia Sexualis of Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing the one that popularized the concept in Since then, the homosexuality has turned into object of intense debate and study: initially it was catalogued like an illness, pathology or disorder that it was necessary to treat, but at present it is understood like integral part necessary to understand the biology, genetics, history, politics, psychology and cultural changes of the identities and sexual practices of the human beings.

At present, the anglicism gay refers in singular or plural to homosexual individuals; it has come to replace Castilian terms in its entirety offensive or offensive (vg. cowardly, inverted, queer, male prostitute, sodomita, etc.). Many of the concepts relative to the sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, transexualidad, etc.) make a mistake sometimes between themselves, especially for lack of information and for prejudices excess.

The feminine homosexuality is called also a lesbianism or lesbianidad (lesbian's quality). The corresponding adjectives are lesbian (s) and lesbian (s). This term comes from the island of Lesbos in Greece and from the poetess Safo, to whom its passionate poems devoted to its friends, and the life surrounded with other women cost him the homosexual's reputation.

The completion-ismo is considered sometimes like pejorative, as homosexuality happens with the word. This suffix has numerous definitions, which go from "supporter of." up to "illness of.", as in case of gigantism. For it, its use would define the idea of that the homosexual group was stretching to the promotion of its conducts, or even about that the homosexual condition must be understood like a mental deficiency. After the society of the belief was separating of that the homosexuality is an illness, the term homosexuality was imposed, since the completion-idad only implies "quality of.". At present, the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy only gathers this one ultima.

Although today it is used of widespread form, it is opportune to review that the existence of the homosexual category in himself itself applied to persons, is an answer object from different ideological points. Since some currents deny that the sexual orientation of a person should define it in any way.

The word homosexuality was created in by Karl Maria Kertbeny in an anonymous pamphlet that was supporting the revocation of the laws against the "sodomy" in Prusia. It was included in Psychopathia Sexualis (), a study of Richard von Krafft-Ebing about what in this epoch a deviation was considered to be sexual

Academic study of the homosexuality

There are not known the causes of the sexual orientation of a person. Although any theories aim at that is innate, there is not known by accuracy the role that they play the heredity genetica (investigated by Simon Le Vay and Dean Hamer, between others) or the experiences during the development in the infancy, the influence and the relation with the parents, etc.

Point of view neurobiologico

In the American neurocientifico Simon LeVay, published a called article "A difference in the structure hipotalamica between homosexual and heterosexual men". In him describes a difference in the percentage of the size and volume of the third interstitial nucleus of the previous hyponuptial bed (INAH) between homosexual and heterosexual men, clarifying that this one is bigger in heterosexuals in comparison to found in homosexual brains. The homosexual INAH is similar in size to found in feminine brains. LeVay wrote that these finds indicate that the INAH shows a dimorphism accompanied by the sexual orientation, and he suggests that such an orientation has a biological substratum. Nevertheless, LeVay added that there is a limited existence of exceptions in which the size of the INAH is not correlated straight with the sexual orientation, adding that it can be an important variable, but that it cannot be the only variable. Also it is possible, nevertheless, that these exceptions should to technical shortcomings or of bad allocation of the subjects to its grupos. to themselves

The Dutch neurocientifico Dr. Dick Swaab, founder of the Bank of Brains of the University of amsterdam, mentions that in the sexual orientation there interferes large number of factors like neuronales circuits, genetic factors and hormones; but it emphasizes that, during the first six months of life gestacional, establishes a stamp of sexual character in the brain and that in two subsequent and important stages, during the first two years of life and the adolescence, exist changes of big hormonal activity that can consolidate the form in which every individual exercises its sexuality

Controversial finds are mentioned with regard to the medicines consumption in pregnant women, especially inside the first two life trimesters gestacional, like the use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory not esteroideos being able to inhibit the production and synthesis of essential prostaglandin in the configuration neuronal hipotalamica fetal and that can be crucial to define the characteristics of the orientation sexual

Psychological point of view

The homosexuality, like psychological category, constitutes from an article of Carl Westphal in about "the opposite sexual sensations".

For the psychoanalysis the homosexuality is not given by the genetics but it is an election. Not a voluntary or conscious election neither nor something that the subject could modify for taste, but an unconscious election. There would be nothing in the human nature that he was passing that the women must attract the males and to the women them varones.

The election of object of love, or, to fall in love with a male or with a woman, is something that would be defined from the resolution of the difficult edipica in all the human beings, be homosexual or heterosexual. In case of the homosexuals, instead of choosing the progenitor of the opposite sex, on having gone out of the edipo eligiria like love object for the progenitor of the same sex. This election would depend more of the type of tie created with every progenitor than of the nature or the instincts.

During the XXX pdf adult magazine years there were psychoanalysts who were considering to the homosexuality inside the perverse structure, but this perversion concept does not possess the pejorative or moralizing vulgar connotation, but simply it includes all to the sexual practices that do not lead to the reproduction, including the caresses and the kisses.

In the XXIst pdf adult magazine it is supported that the homosexuality appears both in a perverse mental structure and in a neurotic structure or in the psychotic one and one does not speak already about homosexuality but about homosexualities. The sexuality is thought in general like a more polymorphous plurality.

Freud was deriving the homosexuality of the psychic, common bisexuality to all the human beings and was saying that to try to transform a homosexual in heterosexual, it was so impossible as to try to transform a heterosexual in homosexual.

Report Kinsey


In the Report Kinsey diverse bisexuality grades are established, the proportion of homosexual practices is indicated in blue.
This way, subsequently, the scientific studies realized by Alfred C. Kinsey, concluded that, analyzed both the behavior and the identity, most of the population seems to have at least some bisexual tendency (attraction towards persons so much of one as of another sex), although ordinarily there is preferred a sex or other. Kinsey and its students thought that only one minority (to per cent) is completely heterosexual or completely homosexual. Of the same way, only one even more small minority can be considered to be completely bisexual and diverse bisexuality grades were established. Later studies have wanted to demonstrate that the Kinsey report had exaggerated the predominance of the bisexuality in the population; but its idea still enjoys a big acceptance.

Theory queer

Some / grasp thinkers / experts in the genre studies, like the French philosopher Michel Foucault (although some of them have argued that its ideas in this topic have suffered distortion) or philosopher Judith Butler, they attack the idea of that such sexual identities like the homosexuality, the heterosexuality or the bisexuality have any objective existence. They say, in its place, that there are social constructions. This theoretical point of view is called a theory queer. A frequent argument is that the premodern homosexuality was different from the modern homosexuality, since it was structured by age, by sex or by class, instead of egalitarian. The critics answer that, although the homosexuality of different epochs should have had different features, the basic phenomenon has always existed and is not a creation of the current society.

Social selection of Roughgarden

One of the last theories proposed for the homosexuality is based on the called social selection. Proposed by the teacher of biology of the University of Stanford Joan Roughgarden, the theory faces the sexual Darwin selection. Basically he denies the reduction of the sexual diversity to two sexes, masculine and aggressive one and another femininely and restrained. With numerous examples of the animal kingdom and of cultures different from the western one, sample that the nature and the different societies offer surprising solutions to the sexuality: fish with several types different from males or whose components change sex in case of need; mammals that have simultaneously masculine and feminine reproductive organs, etc. In case of the human biology, he affirms that the existence of homosexuals, transsexuals and hermaphrodites is only a natural change that integrates perfectly into the diversity showed by other animals. The social expression of this diversity would be in societies like that of the native North Americans, with its two spirits, the mahu polinesicos, the Indian hijra or the eunuchs, that it identifies with persons transgenero.

Homosexuality in the population


I kiss between John Barrowman, Scotch actor and its partner of share-out and fictitious couple in the series Torchwood Gareth David-Lloyd ComicCon , San Diego, California.
The persons who generally have a heterosexual orientation can feel light or occasional desires towards persons of the same sex, in the same way that those that generally have a homosexual orientation can feel light or occasional desires towards persons of the sex opuesto.

There are persons with homosexual orientation who, for the conditions of intolerance and violence or of difficult access other persons of the same sex, have forced to itself to maintain heterosexual relations. The repression, the homophobia and the position of most of the religions forces the homosexuals to hide its orientation feigning before the society to have a heterosexual orientation, what names coloquialmente "to be in the closet" or "in the closet". Nevertheless, authors as the doctor Joseph Nicolosi recount that, if many homosexuals conceal its sexual orientation, it does not owe so much to the social repression, which does not refuse like secondary factor, but to which the homosexuality in itself represents for the homosexual an incompatibility condition both to the established social bases and to its particular system of moral values, that is to say, that a conflict exists between what one is and what owes to be according to the family education according to which it has happened, as well as to certain grades of disorder sexual in the identity

At present, there are persons with homosexual orientation who are 'going out of the closet' or who 'have gone out of the closet', what would be applied to the persons who stop feigning or suppressing its sexual orientation.

The sexual activity with a person of the same sex is not considered to be necessary a homosexuality like sexual orientation, but a homosexual behavior. Not all those who wish persons of the same sex identify as homosexual or bisexual. Some of them have sexual intercourse often with persons of the same sex, although they persist in affirming that they are and are defined as heterosexuals. It would be then possible to distinguish between behavior, desire and homosexual identity, which not always coincide. For example, in some places segregated by sex it can appear "situational" homosexual relations, although the behavior is heterosexual out of there. The same can happen for reasons economic or foreign to the will.

The report Kinsey informed that per cent of the American males were admitting that they had experienced an orgasm on having had sexual contact with other varon. Most of the studies at random carried out in the United States and in western Europe thinks that about per cent of the men and the women admit to have had some homosexual experience, and that about per cent there admits its preference to experiences exclusively homosexual. National Opinion Research Center ("National Center of Investigation in Opinions", in Spanish) he has reported that approximately , per cent of the American men are considered to be homosexuals

The homosexuality has been present in the societies from very ancient times, and there have been cases of homosexuality quite well documented from the earliest antiquity.

In Greece and Rome

The place of the homosexual in the society and the perception of the homosexuality changes very much between the societies and the epochs. In the ancient Greece, for example, it was considering to be normal to him that a boy (between the puberty and the growth of the beard) was the biggest lover of a man, who was dealing with the political, social, scientific and moral education of amado. But it was considered Homosexual gay magazines pdf to be stranger that two adult men should maintain an affectionate relation (although it is seen that it was normal in the relation between Aquiles and Patroclo, or in the soldiers' couples tebanos and even in the relation between Alejandro Magno y Hefestion).


Antinoo, the young Greek lover of the emperor Publio Elio Adriano.
Numerous examples of lyric literature exist extolling the love and the relations homoeroticas adult magazines pdf. The Latin poets of the epoch give for fact that all the men feels homosexual desire in some moment. Poets' examples with some work that praise these relations are Catulo, Horacio, Virgilio or Ovidio. Cabe to stand out the fact that to be "a debit" was not well seen socially, so one was considered that it to be was meaning to be intellectually low and more inexpert that the one that was assuming an "active" roll. Also is outstanding that the feminine homosexuality was not well seen; the Greek maxim was, in this respect, that "the woman was for the reproduction, but the man for the pleasure". One was admitting that it was necessary to preserve the lineage, the species, but that it was possible only to find pleasure in the intimate relation with another man, since the man was considered to be a being more perfect than the woman and, therefore, the union between two men would be more perfect.

In the ancient Rome, although some authors like Tacit or Suetonio was contemplating the homosexuality as a sign of moral degeneration and enclosed of civic decline, it was relatively frequent that a man was penetrating a slave or a young man, while the opposite was considered to be a misfortune. Of Julius Caesar, the big military genius, creator of the Empire, it was said that it was vir omnium mulierum et mulier omnium virorum, this is, "the husband of all the women and the wife of all the husbands Famous '. for its romances with the women of the Roman nobility, the rumors on its homosexuality have its origin in BC, when young Julius Caesar was sent like ambassador to the Nicomedes court. Apparently, the Asian king remained so dazzled with the beauty of the young Roman messenger who invited it to rest in its room and to be informed in a banquet where it served of copero really during the banquet. Its stay in Bitinia generated strong rumors of which both – Julius Caesar and Nicomedes - were lover, which motivated the political adversaries of Julius Caesar to call him "a Queen of Bitinia", enclosed time after its stay in reino. Both Marco Antonio and Octavio (the latter acquaintance later like Cesar Augusto) indicated to them that they had lovers masculinos. Again Suetonio records that the emperor Neron, taking the passive roll with the freedman Doryphorus, was imitating the screams and groans of a woman joven. Also the emperor Galba was feeling attracted by strong men and experimentados. And in several occasions they informs that the soldiers were assaulted sexually by its officials superiores.

The practice of the pederasty has its zenith during the reign of the emperor Adriano. Its love is famous for the young Greek Antinoo. After its premature death drowned Adriano erected temples in Bitinia, Mantineia and Athens in its honor, and even dedicated a city, Antinoopolis. It is necessary to emphasize the young emperor Heliogabalo, who at the beginning of the IIIrd pdf adult magazine scandalized its contemporaries marrying publicly twice dressed in woman. The anecdotes are multiple on its lewd behavior, and the soldiers of its personal guard were met like the donkey tails for being recruited in the spa between better dotados.

The Inquisition

The pursuit of the homosexuality for the Catholic Church was constant along the Middle Age, although the sodomy was a useful accusation that sometimes was joining, and not always it was differing, of that of heresy, what any analysis is frankly difficult. The most famous processes, like the attack against the templarios, accused of of being delivered to homosexual and heretical practices, are all suspects and promoted for political reasons. In normal circumstances the noblemen and privileged rarely they were accused of this class of crimes, which were relapsing almost entirely on slightly important persons and of that we have little information.

During the Vth to XXX centuries, the torture and the capital punishment, generally in the bonfire, were the tortures to which the homosexuals were condemned in most of Europe. The Holy Inquisition of the Catholic Church does not differ very much, in its pursuit of the homosexuality, of what it was current in almost all parts, and it is guilty of the torture and death of innumerable persons accused of the so called abominable sin.

Still expressions preserve in the language (in diverse languages) that refer to the fire in the bonfire of the homosexuals:

finocchio (finoquio), that in Italian "queer" means and also "fennel" (because the person was wrapped in fennel sheets to slow down its agony between the flames); although an erroneous opinion exists (dyed of homophobia) to that the insulting meaning is modern and it comes from the term to fall down of fennels or to kneel down (to realize oral sex). But in Italian, knee is ginocchio, and not finocchio;
faggot, that in English current "queer" means, but that in the past was meaning "bundle of firewood", and it is related to the firewood with which the homosexuals were burned alive up to dying for its sin against nature.
Pursuit Nazi of the homosexuals.

During the epoch Nazi, an inferiority and a genetic defect was considered to the homosexuality, by what there was applied an article about a law of the German penal code of It was a question of the paragraph that he was saying: "A contrary to nature sexual act committed between persons of masculine sex or of human beings with animals is punishable with prison. Also it is possible to arrange the loss of its civil rights."


Pink triangle, symbol imposed by the Nazi on the homosexuals in the concentration camps.
During the Republic of Weimar ‒entre the end of the first world war and Hitler's ascent ‒ this law seldom was put into practice, by what the Berlin of the decade of was considered to be a place of big homosexual life. With the arrival of the Nazism, the Germans considered to be homosexual were caught or interned in concentration camps, where many were murdered. In accordance with the German historian Klaus Müller, it is anticipated that approximately men were arrested under the mentioned penal article between and Approximately the half they were sentenced to prison; of them, between and were sent to concentration camps, of which they survived approximately on having finished the war.

The prisoners considered to be homosexual inside the concentration camps were identified by an inverted triangle of pink color. To those homosexuals who also were Jewish one was forcing them to use David's star which inverted triangle was pink. This symbol, in memory of the extermination in the concentration camps, is used at present by associations that fight against the discrimination because of sexual orientation.

After the war, the said paragraph kept on being a law in both Germanies till the end of the decade of . This way, some homosexuals that Nazi had survived to the concentration camps were arrested again under this law. Still in the German parliament approved a law to annul unjust judgments imposed during the administration of the penal justice Nazi. Two groups were excluded from the integral annulment of the judgments Nazi unjust: the deserters of the army and the homosexual persons. This way one was preventing the homosexual survivors the procedures destined to clean its legal stigma and to perceive the compensations for the tough injustices, as if it happens with other victims. It was not but until the year when the above mentioned law was modified, to include the homosexuals.

The homosexuals were between the groups that were exterminated in the Holocaust Nazi, although there was no systematical effort to eliminate all the homosexuals (as if it was done, on the other hand, with the Jews or with the gypsies). The homosexuals who were sent to die in the concentration camps they were selected often for harassment, torture and special murder, so much for others imprisoned as for the guards.

Legal situation in the world


Laws on the homosexuality in the world
Legal homosexuality:
Homosexual marriage
Civil Unions
Recognition of homosexual marriages realized in other countries and/or been
Without civil unions
Illegal / restricted homosexuality:
Restrictions to the freedom of expression and association
Hardship of jure, more not applied of fact.
Jail sorrow
Life imprisonment
Death penalty
The homosexuality is contemplated of diverse ways by the different juridical arrangings: like the first difference, there exist countries where the behavior homosexuality is punished and others where it it is not, departing from this base:

Countries where the homosexuality is legal: generally the governments work with the target to reduce the homophobia of the society and to grant new rights, being the biggest of them the homosexual marriage and the possibility that the homosexual couples are adopted by minors (case of Spain). Between the rights also they are, in addition to the marriage and the adoption, the civil unions or another type of recognition of these unions.
Countries where the homosexuality is illegal: this one is punished by sorrow that can come to the death penalty (case of Iran and of Saudi Arabia), or at least with economic sanctions or the jail.
It fights against the discrimination

Many western countries have legalized or at least descriminalizado the homosexuality, following recommendations of the European Parliament and of the European Council.

In North America the homosexuality is not chased legally in any territory, but in practice the homosexuals are usually a discrimination object in diverse areas, especially in the rural territories of the United States and in Mexico, since there are ultraconservative nuclei that see it like an illness and, consistently, they try to "cure" the members of the group or chase it (although the both physical and psychological maltreatment does not happen exclusively in these territories). In the same line, there exist diverse places where the homosexuals' parents send there its children "to treat them".

Nevertheless, in cities as New York or San Francisco and in Canada the members of the group LGBT are more respected, being the recognized homosexuality of similar form than in western Europe. Also, it is in North America where the homosexual movement began appearing of organized form politically and excellently with the motive of the rejection to the events in Stonewall. Diverse publications faced towards this community exist, as well as meeting places. Also there take place movies and series destined for the homosexual community or that treat like main topic the homosexuality (some examples, in the United States, are the series of television Queer Folk expert and Will and Grace and the movie Brokeback Mountain, the last one directed by Ang Lee and translated in Latin America with the Secret title in the mountain and in Spain as In forbidden area); all this does that the North American homosexual community is one of the most developed and visible of the world.

See the specific case of the so called law of societies of coexistence in the city of Mexico, Federal district.

Asia

In the Asian continent diverse laws exist with regard to the homosexuality, most of the countries of Middle East is punished from the years of jail up to the death penalty, except Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. In the first one and in the last one, although they have antidiscriminatory laws where the homophobia is punished. In the countries of the Far East, in most of the countries it is legal, less in Burma, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore and between others, which only are punished from the years of jail up to the life imprisonment. In countries as Cambodia, South Korea, Japan, Thailand, Taiwan and especially in the Philippines, already there exists a major acceptance or tolerance where this sexual orientation is respected, although a discrimination isolated by some societies still happens. Although also they are already provided with antidiscriminatory laws, to avoid the homophobia. Also in countries as China, North Korea, Indonesia, Laos, Vietnam and between others, the homosexuality is legal but still suppressed, although in China there is re-arising a high degree of acceptance or tolerance to recognize some legal rights. In India, the homosexuality is illegal and considered like a crime, in spite of the activism and the declarations of artists and intelligentsia of the country so that the laws opposite to the homosexuality are abolished or repealed. In , the homosexuality was legalized and again penalized by the Indian parliament in , since this has generated inconvenience and controversies on the part of the O.N.U. and other international organizations. In spite of being still considered to be a topic taboo on the fourth part of the population, which profess the Hinduism, it still preserves traditionally the respect to the homosexuality with a sacred and religious character. Also in India it has been studied, some possibilities of recognizing certain rights as the marriage between persons of the same sex, although in the country there are some religious minority groups that are opposed to this marriage like the Sikh, the Islamic ones and the Jewish and Christian communities.

Europe

In general, the homosexuality in Europe is accepted and is respected, being the area where the homosexuals enjoy better acceptance both for the civil society and for the political class and the legislation (it was there where there were authorized for the first time both the civil unions and the homosexual marriage). Anyhow, sectors still stay in the society clearly homofobos and from any institutions (case of the government of Poland) the homosexuality is not treated as in the rest of the continent. These last two situations happen more often in the Eastern Europe than in the Western Europe, where the democracy takes more time working.

The European Parliament and the European Council have recommended to all the member states the inclusion in its legislation of antidiscriminatory measurements and of equality for all the minorities, including the sexual ones, measurements that are already current in most of the western Europe and are carried out in the oriental Europe.

Western Europe

See also: Homosexuality in Spain
In the last years, the homosexuality in this region has an acceptance adult magazine pdf high degree, although isolated cases of discrimination can appear on the part of a conservatives' minority, especially in the religious groups. Many countries recognize the civil union and Belgium, Spain, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Iceland, France and two constituent countries of the United Kingdom like Wales and England, have compared all its citizens on having admitted the marriage between persons of the same sex with full legal equality. In all these countries the discrimination and the maltreatment is penalized to the persons for having a concrete sexual orientation.

In Austria, in Ireland and in small states as Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco and San Marino the homosexuality is legal, but specific laws still do not exist.

Oriental Europe

In Eastern Europe, in contrast to most of the countries of the European Union, the homophobia and the discrimination they persist, so much in the Balkans, including Greece, as in the Baltic countries: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (members of the European Union) and other states broken off from the former Soviet Union, in which during the communist regime the homosexuality was condemned and chased (from after the disappearance of the U.R.S.S. the homosexuals were even considered to be criminals or patients).

With the fall of the communism, the homosexuality was legalized in Russia and other countries, although the situation is very far of being that of its western neighbors. In Russia he has proposed to return clearly to the penalization of the homosexuality, although this is not probable, considering the belonging of Russia to the European Council. Nevertheless, not penalization does not prevent the homophobia and the discrimination very clear in this country.

On the other hand, in Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary and the Czech Republic, the homophobia has diminished, due to the belonging or the closeness to the European Union. In Croatia and Hungary one allows the civil union and the discrimination is sanctioned by sexual orientation. In the Czech Republic and Slovenia the civil union is already legal.

A special case is Romania: in spite of being the only oriental European country that knocked down with violence a communist regime that penalized for many years the homosexuality, its decriminalization reluctantly does not avoid the homophobia, which is strong and persistent, although also there is watched a distant possibility that it is possible to reform the legal code, to extend some rights to the couples of the same sex. Something similar happens in its nearby Bulgaria.



The bisexuality is a sexual orientation that is characterized by the sexual, affective and emotional attraction towards individuals of both sexes.

Inside the western tradition, the first records of bisexual nature go back to the ancient Greece since, according to the above mentioned testimonies, this type of relation was practised including to the high society, like kings or governors of Greece.

Although big forms variety has been observed in all the human societies of that written record should stay, the bisexuality has been only an object of serious study from the second half of the XXX pdf adult magazine. On the day of today, there are still disagreements on its predominance and nature.

On September there is celebrated the International Day of the Bisexuality that has for an object the visibility of the bisexual community, as well as to avoid the biphobia. It is a slightly well-known date, even inside the community LGTB.

The attempts of theoretical description about the bisexual conduct turn out to be pronounced, inside the tradition Homosexual gay magazines pdf sexologica western, for its character of ambiguous territory, in which the tension between homosexuality and heterosexuality remains annulled. In an attempt of desambiguacion, it has been considered that there exist several levels of analyses from which they derive the different ways of conceptualizing it bisexualidad:

Biological bisexuality
Psychological bisexuality
Behavioral bisexuality
Cultural bisexuality
Historical bisexuality contemporary vs
This level gradation corresponds, also, to a chronology in studies on this behavior. The theories belonging at the first two levels, the biological and psychological one, frame its development during the XXX pdf adult magazine, while the following, behavioral and cultural two, arise during the XXX pdf adult magazine.

Psychological bisexuality

In the psychological theory, the topic has been an object of diverse consideration.

In the work of Freud, the bisexuality (since it happened with the homosexuality), often was meaning the fixation of a stagnant psychological development. But then Freud was making sure that the human being is of bisexual nature and that the bisexuality is constituted in the children so that then these could choose only one affectionate object. The homosexuality (like the heterosexuality) is the result of an election, because all the human beings have a bisexual psychic base.

The work of Heinz Kohut, on the other hand, defines this behavior as an attempt of regulation of the self-esteem of the individual to reach satisfaction maintaining intimate relations with a sex or two. This need must differ, inside the mentioned paradigm, some "pathological" forms of bisexuality observed in the clinical record of patients with personality of diffuse or weak limits and autorrepresentaciones flown.

Behavioral bisexuality

In the theories of the behavioral level, the attention centers on the study of biographies of individuals who present bisexual conducts. For such a motive, since the sexual conduct normally usually does not happen with two sexes at the same time, the same individual can be related exclusively to a sex or other during a significant phase of the vital development.

The studies of this level focus on the interest in the reasons for which these jumps take place and in its meaning. This way, the bisexuality is conceived like a situational or vital result on the individuals.

This qualitative dimension in the study of the bisexual conduct, is avoided by other quantitative studies of the human sexual behavior, like those of Kinsey, which limit themselves to the statistical inventory of experiences or homosexual and/or heterosexual desires in the individuals.

Cultural bisexuality

Since it has been mentioned, the theories of psychological, spiritual and behavioral cut were centring its attention on the meaning of the bisexuality for the individuals. On the other hand, the theories biologicistas do it in the universal functionality of the bisexuality for the species.

The theories of the fourth and most recent level (the cultural one) think that the fundamental dimension to conceptualize the sexual behavior is in the bosom of the different cultures. This way, attention is paid to the cultural ideas referred to the sexual intercourse or to the domineering ideologies in a culture with regard to what it is considered to be suitable, healthy, morally acceptably or reprehensible in the bosom of a concrete society in a certain moment of its history.

Framed in the bosom of the social constructivism, the cultural theories deny the scientific validity of universal categories as the normality, the naturalness or healthiness of a few or other sexual conducts. These theories are foreign to considerations biologicistas of the sexuality, since they think that there are the cultures, and not the biology, which there determine historically the conceptual objetivizacion and the meaning of the behaviors, rolls and sexual identities.

For it, the cultural theories deny that the only conceptualization of the bisexuality should exist, but this one presents different status and natures depending on the cultural environment that is studied.

From this perspective, there give themselves cultures, like the huaorani, in which not only the homosexuality, heterosexuality or bisexuality do not exist like objective concepts or more or less definite sexual identities, but the proper sexuality concept turns out to be vague or is nonexistent. Nevertheless, between the huaoranies observe practices that, from other cultures, would be understood like sexual, and they would be characterized like hetero or homosexuals.

Predominance of the bisexuality in the western cultures

See also: Demography of the sexual orientation

In the scale Kinsey five bisexuality grades are established, the proportion of homosexual practices is indicated in blue.
A survey of in Spain with a sample of pupils / experts university students / experts found the following results: percent of the boys does not declare himself heterosexuals (, percent homosexual) and percent of the girls is not considered to be a heterosexual (percent lesbians). Partly, this study confirms the forecasts of the study of for with an adult population. "Not heterosexual" implies being a homosexual or some intermediate point between the homosexuality and the heterosexuality, or simply without having answered to the item and nevertheless to have answered to the rest of the questionnaire of form valida.

In Australia the biggest report was realized in and more complex in the country up to the date, by means of telephone survey with interrogated persons, with ages understood between the and years in the years. The study thought that percent of the men was identifying like heterosexuals, percent as gays and , percent as bisexual. Relative to the women, percent identified like heterosexuals, , percent as gays and a percent as bisexual. In any case, percent of the men and percent of the women indicated to feel attraction or feelings adult magazines pdf or to have had some sexual experience with persons of the same sex

Some studies, between them the studies Sexual behavior of the male and Sexual behavior of the woman of Alfred Kinsey, have showed that most of the population seems to be at least lightly bisexual. The majority has certain attraction towards both sexes, although it usually prefer one of them.

According to the Kinsey surveys, only percent- percent of the population can be considered to be exclusively heterosexual or homosexual, for what the rest (between percent and percent) were bisexual to the studied males and women. Only percent of these did not have any special preference between men and women.

The social status that contributes the bisexual, homosexual or heterosexual behavior depends, to a great extent, on the different conceptual objetivaciones that in every culture exist of the identities and sexual behaviors, as well as on the existence of different structures of genre.

Relation with the genre notion

In those cultures in which the genre categorization includes a third genre, ambiguous good or neither of the guy "male nor woman", the distinctions between homosexuality, heterosexuality and bisexuality they are nonexistent for this genre and for those who maintain sexual intercourse with him and blur, sometimes, even the behaviors categorization in the rest of relations. Next we present a series of examples.

Culture puddle: the nadle

For example, in the culture three genres exist puddle: males, women and nadle. The allocation of an individual since nadle it can turn out to be confused, although it is usually a determinant that ambiguous or hermaphrodite genital features exhibit. There exist also "false" nadle, whose genital features are defined, but which behave and are recognized like nadles "authentic". The sexual rolls of the nadle share features of the males and the women. In this culture, there is categorized like reprehensible homosexual behavior the one that males maintain Homosexual gay magazines pdf with males or women with women.

Nevertheless, the relations between nadles and males or women deserve no type of categorization, not neither like homosexuality, nor like heterosexuality, not in case of a nadle that alternates sexual intercourse with males and women like bisexuality.

African cultures: the azande

In different African cultures there exist traditions of marriage between women and marriage between boys who, sometimes, dissolve the differences between homosexuality, heterosexuality and bisexuality. Evans-Pritchard documents between the azande of Sudan the common marriages existence between single warriors and young boys. This marriage was solving the need for sexual exchanges of the single warriors before the women's scarcity due to the widespread poliginia practice.

The young boy who was marrying the warrior was considered to be a woman. The sexual practices of both were considered to be licit and they do not not categorized like homosexual. If the warrior was managing to make the marriage effective with a woman, or if the boy - wife was gaining access to the warrior's condition, the marriage between the males was dissolving. This institution of substitute marriage was not characterized like behavior bisexual either

The Philippines: the bakla

The domineering sexual ideology in the Philippines thinks that the homosexuality is innate and categorizes the homosexuals like a third genre, named bakla. If a bakla pairs off with "a man really" (a tunay na lalake), the last one keeps on being considered to be a heterosexual, since this categorization depends fundamentally on that keep intact the rest of its characteristics of masculine sexual roll (between which it is included to practise neither the fellatio nor the receptive anal sex). This stays enclosed in case of "men really" married that maintain stable sexual intercourse with a bakla, and who are not considered to be bisexual.

The sexual intercourse of a bakla with another bakla is conceptualized like "lesbianism" or pompyangan (to beat of cymbals).

Aztec culture: the tecuhuiloni and the ahuiani

The homosexuality was much punished between the Aztec culture, the homosexual behaviors between men and women were punished to death, but the adoration attracts attention to the duality, ometecuhtli and ometecihuatl were the gods of the duality and the perfection of the life, man and woman live in the same being, this is what the Aztecs believed, the children were born dual (also called conetzintli) and in certain moment of its life they define its sexuality on having entered the puberty, the masculine pubertos were playing with the girls and friends of the same age to discover its sexual attraction towards the opposite genre, the man who was feeling attraction for a man without being made effeminate necessary was tolerated if it had wife and was maintaining the tact, likewise the ahuianimeh or cheering that although they had sex with another woman was thinking them because sooner or later men would be to like.

Other examples

In other cultures there happen cases seemed with regard to the categorization of homosexual or bisexual conducts, although of diverse consideration as for its status. We can quote some examples:

The hermaphrodite genres and third genres of the hijra in the India;
the traditions berdache (two spirits) of American native cultures;
or the third genre mahu Polynesian
Finally, the categorization of the homosexual conduct as sexual access between persons of the same genre and of the bisexual one as the indistinct access between persons of both genres, depends basically on the structure of genres of every culture, and in particular on the existence of a third genre.

Bisexuality and sexual ideologies

The existence or nonexistence of the category bisexuality, as well as its nature letter, its application to a few conducts or others and its social status depend in addition to other components.

The sambia: homosexual practices in rituals of beginning

In a classic study on the sambia of Papua New Guinea, Gilbert Herdt describes ritual relation practices between males structured by ages.

The sambia practise inseminations of preadolescent boys on the part of adults who possess different functions and grant different results. These ritual practices start at the age of seven or eight years, and continue up to the first youth.

The roll is granted to the boys of being inseminated orally by adults in several secret beginnings. During this period the boys can no have relations with women under capital punishment. In the sexual ideology sambia, the semen turns out to be the vital elixir, therefore the masculinizacion of the preadolescent boys depends on the ingestion of mature semen.

These practices, which are interrupted ideally when the boy has married and has had the first son, are not thought homosexuals and, therefore, the adults who take part in them, and who are married, are not considered to be bisexual either. There exist, yet, males who once married keep on enjoying the oral sex boys on the sly and who yes are considered to be bisexual and do not suffer any loss of self-esteem or social approval for it adult sex magazine pdf.

Study of Foucault of the classic USA

The French philosopher Michel, in its History of the sexuality, documents homosexual relations structured by ages in the Classic USA of a similar way to the sambia.

In this period only it was categorized like that reprehensible homosexual relation that an adult male was maintaining with another adult male, proving that the loss of social status was relapsing fundamentally into that one that was maintaining a "passive" disposition in the meetings, this is, receptive of the penis of other. The passive disposition was considered to be essentially feminine, for what, in consonance with the domineering patriarchal ideology, feminizaba to the passive male and a strong public repression was transporting to him.

Nevertheless, the practices maintained by an adult with a young man or child were considered to be included in the learning practices pedagogue - ward, what was categorized neither like homosexuality nor like bisexuality, even in case the adult male was married. Herdt has documented similar structures of sexual categorization in the medieval Japanese culture.

Cultures without sexuality concept: the huaorani

Another case that shows that the cultural sexual ideologies determine the categorizations of the behaviors is that of the culture huaorani, that lives in the Amazon, between the river Napo and the river Curaray.

In this culture the sensuality neither centers on the genitals nor is an exclusive mastery of the adult heterosexuality. The huaorani not sexualizan the sensuality; the different corporal pleasures remain undistinguished and identified like "well-being" in its common life.

It exists for this culture neither a notion similar to our concept of sexuality, nor categorizations that distinguish a few sexual behaviors of others, even for those in which children, young people and adults take part. Neither the sexual attraction is significant, in its construction of the genres, between men and women.

Nevertheless, the huaoranis carry out practices that other cultures would qualify of sexual, so many homo as heterosexuals. Simply, after the central heterosexuality notion does not exist in its culture, there happen neither the corresponding cultural constructions of homosexuality nor bisexuality.

Bisexuality, homosexuality and status in the western cultures

Bisexuality as homophobia internalizada

Inside the European and Anglo-American western cultures, the domineering sexual ideology has been historically heterocentrista and patriarchal. In this double slope, the sexuality has been considered to be founded on the reproduction, the women have been relegated to reproductive and domestic functions and to social structures of weakness and the heterosexuality has been considered to be the only healthy, legitimate and natural option.

The masculine, hard failed homosexual behaviors and even punished penalmente, have transported sometimes a feminizacion of the males who were showing them, while the feminine homosexuality was practically invisibilizada.

On the other hand, the strength of the movements reivindicatorios LGBT has been imposing partially, especially in case of the masculine homosexuality, a model of homosexual practices called homosexuality between pairs, in which two members of a homosexual relation are not re-categorized as for the genre, independently of its age or of the receptive disposition or insertiva in the sexual meeting.

This situation has given place to that, in the bosom of the communities gays and lesbian of homosexuality between pairs, individuals who construct strong homosexual identities that are determinant for its biographies, accuse those who identify like bisexual of hypocrites, thinking that they are in fact homosexuals who take part in heterosexual activity only to keep on being socially acceptable.

For this double situation of social rejection to the homosexuality and rejection in some communities gays and lesbian of the bisexuality, some studies show the bisexuality, both masculine and feminine, like a case of homophobia internalizada. The consideration of the extramarital homosexual practices of males married women, as well as the idea of that the receiving of the proper homosexuality debilitates the claims of the militants LGBT, they have been used also like arguments of this theory of the homophobia internalizada.

Bisexuality as transit identitario

Of equal form to this theory, also one has considered, in the communities bosom gays and lesbian between pairs, the bisexuality as a situation of transit.

This way, a Herdt study on urban adolescents of Chicago (United States) thinks that the participation of these young Americans in relations homoeroticas and heteroeroticas they were serving, in some cases, of comparative point of reference of the proper sexual, still immature tendencies, like previous step to be praised by a heterosexual or homosexual identity.

Nevertheless, the emergency of claims of the bisexuality as a third sexual identity Homosexual gay magazines pdf and the appearance of "cultural scripts" about of what does this bisexual identity consist would be opening new categorization routes. In this new tessitura, Herdt distinguishes that young people who were qualifying or feeling that its bisexual practices were of transit, of that others that they were re-founding its sexual identity in bisexual practices.

The genre difference is not indifferent regarding the formation of the homosexual and bisexual identities adult magazines pdf. The difference of average ages in the access to the first sexual meetings indicates that, in case of the males with bisexual practices, the first contact homoerotico precedes the contacts heteroeroticos, while the tendency is invested for the women. The descriptions that there was doing the young people of these first sexual contacts with one or another sex seem to indicate that they were using them to try to clarify its feelings with regard to the construction of its sexual identity.

Symbols and autoidentification of bisexual


Flag of the bisexual pride.
Since bisexual some of them feel that they do not fit not in the community gay not in the heterosexual world, and since they tend to be "invisible" in public (making a mistake without problems in the homosexual and heterosexual societies), some of them have formed their own communities, culture and political movements. Nevertheless, since the bisexual orientation can be in any point exclusive between two ends of homosexuality and heterosexuality, others of those who identify as bisexual they prefer to be part of the homosexual or heterosexual society.

A common symbol of bisexual identity is the flag of the bisexual pride, designed by Michael Page, who has a pink stripe that represents the homosexuality, the blue one that represents the heterosexuality and a residence (miscellany of the rose and the blue) in the half that represents bisexuality


The superimposed triangles.
Another symbol of bisexual identity that uses the scheme of colors of the bisexual flag consists of a blue triangle and the pink one put on top (the pink triangle is a recognized symbol of the homosexual community), forming the purple one in its intersection.

Homosexual and bisexual many people are disliked by the use of the pink triangle like its symbol, since it was the symbol used by Hitler's diet to mark homosexuals (likewise the star of David used by the Jews). These persons simply do not want to be represented or to be identified like a suppressed group.

Biphobia

The biphobia is a neologism that refers to the rejection towards the bisexual persons or towards the bisexuality itself. It refers to the point of view of which the persons must belong obligatorily to some of others two sexual orientations: heterosexuality or homosexuality (obligatory monosexuality). This way, object of biphobic attacks demands from the bisexual persons a supposed "definition" of its sexual orientation in terms dicotomicos of homo or heterosexuality, denying its bisexuality.

Other motivations for such a rejection are given by a "stereotype" much spread on the bisexual community: the supposed promiscuousness inherent in its sexual condition. Also there exist ill-disposed rumors about which the bisexual community is responsible of there spread between the communities homosexual, heterosexual and the same bisexual community, different sexual illnesses like the syphilis, the VIH or the genital herpes, between others, for the same promiscuousness of which they are accused.

This conception worsens also for the aptitude of big part of the bisexual ones to come out of its own community and to penetrate inside the homosexual and/or heterosexual communities untypically with sexual ends and/or in the belonging search to a community different from his Homosexual gay magazines pdf.

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