Sexual aggressors and sex revolution

21-05-2014, 14:57Print
Reproductive revolution (pdf adult magazine), in demography, sociology and geography of the population, is a concept of systemic character applied to the reproductive efficiency of the human population, proposed by John MacInnes and Julio Perez Diaz, to understand the nature of the demographic change that leads the modern societies. The reproductive efficiency is the result of a low birthrate and a high survival that guarantees the maintenance of the population, as well as an ideal relation intergenerational.

The reproductive revolution or third revolution of the modernity supposes a change of paradigm pdf adult magazine that would replace the concept of demographic transition and its transverse analysis that uses the ages as groups of different persons - pyramids of population - for a new longitudinal and intergenerational point of view that uses the ages as stages of the life of a dynamic and systematical way.

The term reproductive revolution has been used occasionally recounted it to the technical advances so much in the treatment of unfertility - fertilization in vitro-, anticoncepcion8 9 as well as in the description of hypothetical future stages on the human reproduction.

But this new reality, for Perez Diaz, would keep on analyzing with insufficient ideas of the past - aging population, infrapoblacion - postulates of the traditional model of the demographic transition that use analytical methods constructed pdf adult magazine with transverse studies. There is needed a model that integrates the overflowing new reality and from solid and satisfactory answers to its consequences, a model based on longitudinal studies that account for the intergenerational, of the real revolution that has taken place in reproduction.

Although the human reproductive potential is raised (an average of 12 children for woman), along the human history the reproductive efficiency has been scarce, most of the born were dying before reaching adult ages. This highest mortality was having to use this potential to maintain the population.

When the survival of the highest percentage of the born is high and a big longevity is reached many births stop being necessary to maintain the demographic reproduction - the population supported over the course of time - a high reproductive efficiency being reached diminishing significantly the reproductive work: it is the revolution reproductive.

Concept of reproductive revolution

The reproductive Revolution understood like the transit to the reproductive modernity - that like one more modern revolution joins the economic revolution and the politics - is defined by MacInnes and Perez Diaz like:

the change of scale, historically recent and unrepeatable, in the efficiency of the reproduction demografica.

The reproduction not only depends on the fecundity, also on the death and the real years:

The reproduction is a balance between two components analytically separated, but inextricable in the real world: the births and them muertes.

It is necessary to consider like an achievement historically unrepeatable since the massive survival of the generations until the end of its fecund life is a fundamental component of the revolution reproductiva.

Concept of reproductive efficiency

For the theory of the reproductive revolution the fecundity is not a faithful indicator of the reproductive capacity of a population as it it was in the model of the demographic transition. This way, opposite to the negative evaluation of the descent of the fecundity, the reproductive revolution indicates a change of more general order, the reproductive efficiency that is not another thing than the radical transformation of the efficiency with which the human beings manage to be replaced with new human beings before morir.

The interpretation of what supposes the demographic modernization allows to incorporate the changes in the family (end of the patriarchy), the fecundity (modification of its importance and of the level of substitution), the relations of the genre and the survival of the individuals of a more satisfactory way how it was fulfilled by the theory of the demographic transition.

This way, the real level of substitution or fecundity of substitution, as he predicts the reproductive revolution can be below 2,1 children for woman when the individuals of a generation increase its longevity.

Origin of the concept of reproductive Revolution

French school and index of reproduction of the real years

MacInnes and Perez Diaz point out that the origin is in the correct delimitation of the quantification like synthesis of fecundity and mortality (removed from the identification of fecundity and reproduction) that incia with the study of the demographic reproduction for the French school of demography and the introduction for the historian Louis, creator of the historical demography who has published for the first time the index or valuation of reproduction of the real years - that compares the number of years lived by the generation of the mothers with the number of years lived by the generation of the daughters - fundamental in the theoretical proposal of the reproductive revolution.

The individual is named a sexual aggressor, be a male or woman, who attacks or attacks to other, is an adult male, woman, child or girl, in order to dominate it sexually, so much be in the shape of sexual abuse as violation.

The notion of sexual aggressor has been changing with the time in accordance with as they have been changing the concepts of property, body, rights or sexual freedom.

For example, in the Antigua Rome the sexuality model was the relation of the owner with its subordinates (wife, pages, slaves), that is to say, the subjection. In the sexual morality the opposition was to submit / be submitted: while to submit laudable age, to be submitted was shameful. Nevertheless, when it was a question of a woman, a child or a slave was native 1 No existed the concept of sexual aggressor as it exists now because the adult male, especially the pater families, was who was showing the absolute power and was the absolute proprietor of the bodies of its wife, servants, slaves and slaves. If the pater families wanted to take sexual possession of some of them it was in its right and was not considered to be a sexual aggressor. If they it were, on the other hand, different that they were daring to use sexually to someone of the property of the pater.

In this epoch one was not thinking about an injury of the sexual freedom because either the women or the slaves could decide with whom to maintain relations sexual.

The violent sexual subjection of a woman on the part of a male who was not its husband was an attack to the private ownership of the father or the husband of the woman, an affront to the private ownership and not a sexual affront towards the victim.

In the epoch of the slavery in America, it would have happened to nobody to think that a sexual aggressor was the owner who was submitting its black slave or the Spanish conqueror who was submitting its Indian wife.

The concept of sexual aggressor appears simultaneously with the notion of sexual rights and appropriation of the proper body.

The first studies on the sexual aggressors date of the XXX pdf adult magazine when Richard von Krafft-Ebing publishes its famous "Psychopathia Sexualis" and proposes to designate to the sexual perversion in which the satisfaction is tied to the suffering or the humiliation inflicted on other with the name of sadism. We can name Havelock Ellis, who begins to study the sexual perversions and Albert Moll with its "Perversions". Another precursor was Sigmund Freud with its «Three essays on sexual theory», published in 1905.

Since then numerous scientists, doctors, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and psychologists have devoted themselves to the study of the sexual assaults and the profile of the aggressor.

Etiology

Diverse theories exist on the origin of the sexual crime. Although some investigators take into consideration the biological and genetic factors, they all coincide that the origens of the behavior turned away from the sexual aggressors one finds in the infancy of these subjects.

Biological factors

Between the biological factors they appear:

High testosterone levels
Anomalous cerebral functioning
Abnormal sexual steroids
The aggressive behaviors have its base in the endocrine system with different biochemical mediators. The investigators studied both the levels of testosterone and the sexual hormones steroids. Some studies spoke that the high intensity of the uncontrollable sexual impulses pdf adult magazine should to themselves at the high levels of testosterone that the aggressors would have sexual. Nevertheless there exist other studies that have found very low testosterone levels in sexual aggressors and even sexual aggressors.

The sexual hormones steroids have the function to organize and to activate so much the sexual behavior so much like the aggressive one. The activation takes place during the puberty and the first adolescence, moment in which the young one must learn to control its impulses, its aggression and its sexuality of suitable form socially. The studies demonstrate that during the puberty and the hormonal development the environmental factors have preponderance in learning of the form in which the young man learns to canalize its sexuality and its aggressiveness. It is the epoch in which the adolescent must learn to separate the sex of the aggression and learn to control its both sexual and aggressive impulses to inhibit the aggression in the sexual context. That's why the sexual behavior of a normal adult male differs greatly from the behavior of an adolescent who newly is experimenting. This learning is part of the social and environmental factor and not of the biological factor inherent in all the males of the species humanes.

Between the studies realized with measurement of hormones one found that only one minority of the studied rapists steroids had high levels of sexual hormones.

Cultural factors

The theories associate environmental on the origin of the sexual crime identify the leading role of specific factors:

Paternal-subsidiary ties
Solitude and styles of fidelity
Juvenile sexual history
Sociocultural influences
Control of the impulses
Pornography
Self-esteem
Empathy
Emotional solitude
Cognitive distortions
The investigations indicate that most of the bullies have been abused in turn of pdf adult magazine. Some studies, even, go so far as to prove that 82 percent of the bullies has been smart sexually in its infancy.

Nevertheless not all the smart children will turn into bullies, in addition to the abuse into if, they take control of many other factors. Less than one third of the children who have been smart sexually will turn into adult sexual aggressions.

Since, as we do not know the real incidence of the sexual assaults because mostly they are not denounced, must suppose that most of the smart children will never go so far as to turn in victimarios.

Nevertheless, the abuse is not the only motive for which they turn into sexual adults aggressors. The essential difficulty of the sexual aggressors is that of the control of its impulses, of the control of the aggressiveness and the healthy expression of its sexual desires. In the way of learning to control the proper aggression and the expression of the sexual needs it is known that the environment fulfills a fundamental roll. The aptitude to establish intimate, mature relations affectively and respectful of other, depends in most cases on the quality of the affective relations of the children with its first minders, that is to say, its parents or its sustitutos.5

The emotional solitude is a predictor of anger, aggression and hostility in general and, in the adult males, it it is of anger and hostility towards the women in particular. This turns out to be corroborated in case of the sexual aggressors, who usually lack real affective real relations, important nearby friends and usually feel very alone socially, in spite of being still surrounded with the people 8

The sexual delinquents show significant deficits in its interpersonal relations, in its ties with the others, have less intimate or narrow relations in its lives and there are many other solos than the rest of the common criminals and the rest of personas.

There exist studies that they show that the depression, the anxiety and the sensation of solitude desinhiben the repression and they increase the possibility of carrying out aggressive acts sexually. The oblique sexual assaults turn out to be increased when an individual predisposed to commit it finds an opportunity and feels alone, distressed, frustrated, depressed or pushed back by one woman pdf adult magazines.

The individual must have a special predisposition since a normal male, in spite of feeling alone, depressed, distressed, frustrated or even alcoholic neither will commit a sexual assault, it neither will violate a woman it will not even abuse a child although it has the opportunity, since there him will work its own moral barriers and its normal sexual repression.

This predisposition we must find it in the infancy of the individual. The sexual rapists usually come from disfunctional families, they lived through an infancy surrounded with both physical and psychic abuses, that is to say, they were punished physically in arbitrary form, not related to its bad behavior but for caprice of the adult, and exposed to the maltreatment emotional 11

Children of excessive parents who often were ill-treating the mother, that hated the women, who were ill-treating its children and did not respect the needs either physical or emotional of its wives and its children. Absent parents, rechazantes, insensitive, slightly affectionate, maltratadores and violentos.

A sexual aggressor is an individual with few social skills, who feels alone although it is surrounded with the people, who does not manage to satisfy its emotional and sexual needs for a suitable way, which has a low control of its impulses, which possesses a disposal to attack to other when he feels frustrated and that, finally, has found the opportunity of perpretar its aggression sexual 5

Sociocultural influences

The representations that the young people sees in the mass media usually describe the males like powerful and aggressive and with right to treat the women as they want. The violence in the television programs helps to the social acceptance of the violence. The interpersonal violence, the masculine domination and the negative attitudes towards the women are part of the common stereotypes of the patriarchal societies.

Some anthropological studies show that in the societies who are not violent the violations are not anything common while in the warlike societies, where exhalta the domination and the masculine fortitude, the violations are much more frequent.

The people prefer to think that the sexual aggressor or the children's bully are «green old men», you present yourself with some type of mental weakness, alcoholics, drug addicts, or vagabonds, you present yourself in that easily evidences of its monstrosity would be, but this is not it isolate.

This image that the imaginary social one usually has of the sexual aggressor, so much belongs to the rapist of adult women as of the infantile sexual bully it is distant much of the reality. The people imagine the rapist or sexual bully like a monster, easily detectable someone, of dangerous and unpleasant aspect. The reality is quite different. The sexual aggressor turns out to be, the majority of the times, an individual as any other, which one cannot distinguish from the rest of the "normal" persons.5

The sexual violations against adults are committed exclusively by males and the majority of the victims is women, although also the violation of varones.

The women also can commit an outrage against the sexual freedom of the children and adolescents and take part, in much less measurement, in cases of infantile sexual abuse.

A woman has six times more probabilities of being attacked sexually or of it violated for relative that for one it do not know.

The biggest difficulty with the prevention of the infantile sexual abuse is that there are taught the children to distrust the strangers when the sexual aggressors are usually nearby acquaintances of the children: parents, relatives, teachers, religious leaders, trainers, neighbors, etc.

The statistics show that 97 percent of the sexual aggressors is adult males and usually comes from all the races, cultures, ethnic groups, social levels, educational levels and professions. The heterogeneity between the aggressors is immense. No human group of males remains exempt from the risk of committing aggressions sexual.

A sexual assault suspicion can never remain invalidated with the argument of the occupation of the aggressor: "he is a good father», «he is a good teacher», «he is an important doctor», «he is an out-standing judge», «he is a good priest», etc. They are persons of normal appearance those who usually commit this type of agressions.

A sexual aggressor can be a polite, agreeable, polite, riding, collaborating, hard-working individual, of good family, nice, carismatico.

For these motives and, since all the sexual aggressors always deny its crimes, the only way known until now of identifying a sexual aggressor is by means of the condemnation of one court.

When it talks each other of violations of males the target is usually the humiliation. Also there exist cases of adolescent males who abuse children, and in less measurement women's cases abusadoras.

The sexual aggressor is usually an individual who manipulates the perceptions, judgments and emotions of the others with facility. They can lie with facility to deny its crimes and to evade the condemnation. One treats as individuals with strong tendencies to lie, that they use as defensive mechanisms the denial, the minimization, the projection, the rationalization and the parcializacion not to feel that they lie and to support its self-portrait. On having accepted only fragments of the reality, not only they cheat other but they deceive themselves if the same to become convinced nor to that the victim was wishing the sexual assault and not to assume its responsibility feel culpable.

They are never honest with the confession of its inclinations because they know that they will go to the jail. This there join the cognitive distortions from which they suffer. A pedofilo of long byline can minimize its conduct and adduce that it is its first time, or that it is not a pedofilo and it was only a slip-up. Or that the child was wishing it and he withstood it. A rapist can minimize its conduct and adduce that the woman consented and up to autoconvencerse of it.

Type of aggression

The investigations show that both the rapist of adult women and the children's bully need to be sorry to be able and control on its victim. Defenseless or weaker beings look to feel strong and powerful. The sexual violations are usually accompanied by violent acts and degradations of the victim. For what the aggressor looks is the humiliation of the victim more than the erotic discharge. The statistics show that more than 70 percent of the rapists realizes needless violence acts against its victims and enjoys humiliating them. Control, power, domination and hostility are the characteristics that are not missing in a sexual attack. It seemed that the sexuality is the resource found by the sexual aggressor to achieve its target, which is the exercise of the power and to reach a control feeling on the victim. That's why many authors insist that the violation has more that to see with control that with sexuality pdf adult magazine.

Predominance

The statistics do not reflect the real number of violations since most of the victims do not realize the denunciation. On the base of numerous surveys realized in the United States the investigators went so far as to calculate that, due to the fear and the shame of the victim, only there is denounced 10 percent of the endured sexual attacks, for what turns out to be impossible to determine the real incidence of the sexual assaults.

What if it is known is that those countries in which the women and the children are treated like a property that the male can use at his pleasure, those in which the patriarchal society is more discriminatory, and the women and the children are treated like objects, are those in that the indexes of violations of women and of infantile sexual abuse are mayores.

Also it happens that the judicial system imprisons with major facility the sexual aggressors who come from the lowest layers of the society or who belong to the racial minorities than to those who come from the highest strata of the society.

The statistics indicate to the biological parents and not to the stepfathers or strangers, like the main persons in charge of the sexual abuses infantiles.

Treatment

Many countries have begun developing treatment programs for sexual aggressions.

In the United States there were 20 treatment programs for sexual aggressors and more than 700.

The treatment programs are usually psychological, cognitive - behavioral, since the ineffectiveness of the castration was demonstrated in the decade of '60 and, in '80, the ineffectiveness of the chemical castration.

In the prison of Picassent, in Valencia, a treatment program exists for sexual aggressors pdf adult magazines.

Programs directed exclusively to the clergy exist.

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