Sexual practices - Masturbation

21-05-2014, 15:24Print
Sexual practices like Masturbation

The masturbation, both masculine and feminine, it is the stimulation of the genital organs in order to obtain sexual pleasure, being able to come or not to the orgasm.

The masturbation begins in the infancy of a more or less explicit way. In the adolescence the maximum frequency can come to several times a day for boys and 3 or 4 times per week for the girls, diminishing with the age. There exist periods in which the percentage increases.

The masturbation skills are numerous but, generally, it consists of the direct stimulation of the external organs.

In the man, it consists of extending the body of the penis with the hands and carrying quite vigorous movements out of forward backwards (with or without covering the glans for the prepuce). The direct stimulation of the glans and the stop can be done at first but it turns quickly very sensitively and unpleasantly when the excitement is strong.

In the woman, the direct stimulation is done at the level of the least lips (especially interns) and about the clitoris, avoiding the glans clitoridiano that is also very sensitive as soon as the excitement is strong. The manual movements of the woman are much slower and soft than those of the man. The most common thing is that the hand of the woman goes on from the least lips to the region clitoridiana and towards the entry of the vagina.

Petting (caresses)

It is named petting to the sexual intercourse without penetration (coitus). The coitus makes possible, when it is realized without contraceptive methods, the pregnancy and the reproduction. The petting consists it is an exchange of caresses, kisses, (with the securing of pleasure and/or affection) but without coming to the penetration. In this type of sexual intercourse without coitus the use of contraceptive methods is not necessary. The affective-sexual relations must be pleasant and sure.

Sexual disorders: parafilias

They are named parafilias to the sexual disorders. These perversions consist of sexual practices that are not considered to be "normal". Certain sexual practices can be qualified or not of parafilias, according to: the intensity of the same ones, the exclusivity of the same ones and the respect to the sexual freedom of others.

Values of the sexuality

A sexual value is a real or ideal, wished or desirable quality for its kindness, which rough force faces the human life, from its communicative and symbolic dimension.

This way I could affirm that the sexual value invigorates the personal growth. In the creative appropriation of sexual values there is expanding the horizon of our life as a continuous one to be - dando-de-si our own personal reality, for our good, with whom they surround us and of the entire humanity.

The structure – always pedagogic - of the categories of sexual values that we use for a questionnaire on sexual values of the future professionals of the Education in the faculty of Educational sciences of Granada is the one that we present now: corporal, intellectual, affective, esthetic sexual values, individuals - liberators, moral, social instrumental and integral.

Corporal sexual values: those qualities related to the human sexuality which force or main center is the body like living matter of the person.
Intellectual sexual values: qualities which central reference is the rational nature of the man, as soon as content, process or result, as regards the sexuality.
Affective sexual values: sexual qualities which content affects to our psychic taste reactions: to the states of emotion, feeling or passion.
Esthetic sexual values: sexual qualities that are wished or desirable for its beauty in its declarations in the persons, in the art or the nature.
Sexual values individuals - liberators: the sexual values individuals - liberators are sexual qualities that primarily recount the singular and autonomous aspect of the person, as well as its consequences.
Moral sexual values: the moral sexual values center on the ethical estimation: the kindness or nastiness of the sexual actions as soon as you fell, attending finally or to the duty.
Social sexual values: they affect straight to the social and institutional sexual intercourse, in its content and in the procedure or purpose.
Instrumental sexual values: they are those that we estimate more like means than like ends related to the benefits that they bring in our sexual growth.
Integral sexual values: they refer principally to several or to all the sexual dimensions of the person, showing more global perceptions.

The sexual orientation, sexual tendency or sexual inclination recounts a boss of sexual, erotic, emotional or affectionate attraction to certain group of persons defined by its sex. The sexual orientation and its study, they can be divided in three main ones, being the heterosexuality (attraction towards persons of the opposite sex), the homosexuality (attraction towards persons of the same sex) and the bisexuality (attraction towards persons of both sexes). 1 Other types of sexual orientation can be considered.

The human sexual behavior, the identity of genre, the sexual identity are terms related to the sexual orientation, since psychologically they shape the sexual perception in a person. The sexual preference suggests that a grade of voluntary election, which determines the sexual life of a person after The congruity or conflict establish a genre as object of desire 2 recounts to the relation or similaridad between sexual preference and the sexual orientation. The term congruity is applied to a person whose sexual preferences coincide with its sexual orientation (Example: a man declared homosexual that supports sexual intercourse with persons of the masculine genre), while conflict recounts to the difference between the sexual preference and the sexual orientation (Example: a woman declared heterosexual that sexual attraction sits to persons of the feminine genre, which supports sexual intercourse with persons of the masculine genre and which prefers to be called a heterosexual).

The human sexual behavior is an identity with which it differs to the sexual and emotional process of the human beings with those natural sexual processes in other animal species, standing out top sexual capacities as the eroticism. The sexual process is innate to the nature and it has the main function of the preservation and the evolution of the species, being placed like fundamental part of the behavior of the animal species. A human individual can or not show its sexual orientation in its sexual behavior, being limited possibly by the conventionalities of the society or by himself.

Cisgenero

The cisgenero corresponds to a social term applied to those persons who possess certain identity of concordant genre with the social roles that are assigned to the biological genre of certain person. Alignment between identity of genre, biological sex and behavior according to the biological, such genre is the case of a person who was born being a man and is identified himself inside the masculine genre; a born one as woman who identifies in the feminine genre. This unlike a person transgenero (Born man who identifies himself in the feminine genre; woman who identifies herself in the masculine genre). Diverse social questions determine the presence of the cisgenero, it being based on the genre normatividad (what the society identifies like "correct" in every biological genre). Some elements and conceptions include normally: the expression of the sexuality, the human sexual behavior, the sexual orientation, the identity of genre, the way of dressing, the labor performance, the manerismos, the emotional expression, etc.

Transgenero

Transgenero is a global term applied to the conflict between the proper identity of the genre, the biological genre and the social rolls assigned to certain genre. The identity transgenero does not imply a specific sexual orientation, since anyone can be present. Different identities exist transgenero that can or not to be tied to certain sexual orientation.

Transexualidad: The transexualidad is an identity in which a person identifies, she wants to live and be accepted like a person of the sex opposite to its biological sex. The transexualidad shows the astral identity of which from the birth it was necessary to have belonged to the opposite genre. The transexualidad often involves the desire of another body that is obtained by means of surgeries of reassignment of genre and hormonal treatments of reassignment of genre.
Cross-dressing: The term cross-dressing refers to the use of pledges assigned socially to the opposite genre. Inside the variants of the cross-dressing other identities are transgenero, the transvestismo and the drag. The transvestismo is an identity transgenero in the one that the person identifies with the way of dressing socially assigned to the opposite genre, being able or not, to be related a transsexual desire to be identified like a person of the opposite genre. The drag is a histrionic assistant in whom a person represents dramatically a person of the opposite genre, highlighting a tone parodico or burlesque of the caricature of the rolls of genre; normally used in the varieties theater, and also another similar form in the theater kabuki.
Genderqueer: There is a term identified like the intermediate genre in which the person identifies himself as a miscellany of masculine and feminine (bigenre), none of two (agenero), a neutral genre (neutral genre), a separate genre (third sex), or all the previous ones.
Androginia: The androginia is the term with which there are identified the physical or psychological features of certain genre inside an individual of the opposite genre. Being related to the above mentioned term there is the physical androginia (sexual ambiguity) and the psychological androginia (effeminacy and masculinizacion).
Fluid genre: It is a concept that describes the conduct of a person in which there arises a type of transformismo in which the person rotates its genre, depending the context.
Monosexuality and Polysexuality

Monosexuality

Monosexuality defines a standard of behavior inside the identities of the sexual orientation that is reflected like the emotional or sexual attraction towards a certain genre or identity of genre. Inside this bogey the heterosexuality and the homosexuality usually qualifies for representing only the attraction towards only one specific group of persons. The monosexuality can derive in the attraction towards persons who belong to a specific group of persons, under the characteristics of its biological genre or its identity of genre, including the posibildad of an extraordinary bogey to the conventional classification of the genres binarios.

In a concept more removed from the classification of the sexual orientation, one usually says that the monosexuality defines a sexual standard of behavior in which the sexual interaction is preferred with the only one presents itself; referring to the loyalty of couple, the dependence, the demisexualidad or the specific attraction for only one it chase.

Monosexualizacion

Monosexualizacion, inside the study of the human sexual behavior and the rolls of genre, recounts to the process by means of which a person of polysexual identity settles in only one sexual standard of behavior in which only it interacts with only one specific group of persons who have certain biological genre or identity of genre (Example: A bisexual man of sexual preferences androfilicas that has decided to be established sexually inside relations with other men).

The term monosexualizacion must not be confused with the term used in different fields of the biology and the sociology, since they have different meanings and different application. Inside the field of the biology, the term monosexualizacion recounts to the biological process in which a fetus acquires by means of different hormonal processes the proper characteristics of one sex. Inside The field of the sociology, the term monosexualizacion recounts to the establishment of the social power inside a select group of persons for its genre.

Polysexuality

Polysexuality recounts to a standard of behavior in which there sits down sexual or emotional attraction towards several groups of persons of certain biological genre or identity of genre, of a way opposite to the monosexuality. The term must not be confused with the terms pansexualidad and polylove, since they refer to different bosses inside the sexual behavior.

The polysexuality differs from the pansexualidad for representing only the attraction towards some groups of persons of certain sex or identity of genre, while the pansexualidad recounts to the plural attraction for different specific groups of persons in which there are the binary genres and the different identities of genre (transgenero). Inside the polysexuality the attraction can be included towards both binary genres (bisexuality) or towards identities of genre that are not inside the bogey of the genre binary. Differentiated from the concept of polylove that it recounts to the flexibility poligamica of the acceptance of more than one sexual couple.

Sexual tendency

In the studies regarding the classification of the sexual orientation, one usually speaks about standards of behavior that are not defined as a heterosexuality or a homosexuality, properly. In this sense terms variety is applied usually that they refer to the standards of sexual behavior of an individual, and not to the type of sexual orientation with which the individual identifies or is recognized. The term tendency is usually used to describe the sexual presence of standards of behavior (heterosexual or homosexual) you will regulate in a person who is recognized inside certain sexual orientation, which behaviors, sometimes, move away from what is established clinically how proper of this sexual orientation. The term tendency is usually adherent to a califcativo of the sexual orientation to denote the presence of improper sexual bosses of the sexual orientation about which one speaks, without coming to the need to classify it like bisexuality or pansexualidad. Two dimensions exist inside this classification hetersexualidad with homosexual tendencies, where a person who identifies as heterosexual presents some pattern of homosexual conduct, and homosexuality with heterosexual tendencies, where a person who identifies as homosexual presents some conduct pattern heterosexual 9

Androfilia and ginecofilia

Androfilia is a term that refers to a boss in the sexual behavior in which one feels sexual attraction for individuals of the masculine genre, without importing the type of sexual orientation that is present. The androfilia can appear like a regular sexual boss inside the classification of the sexual orientations in the case of: a feminine heterosexual, a masculine homosexual, a bisexual one and a pansexual. The term is used usually as a concept of less extension that recounts only the bosses cronofilicos of the attraction for adult persons of the masculine genre or to the attraction for pubescentes or post-pubescentes of masculine genre. Andromimetofilia is a similar term to androfilia that recounts to the attraction for feminine individuals that they present cultural or social features that conditionally are assigned to the persons of the masculine genre in the traditional society, being able to be applied also in some cases to feminine transgenero (transsexuals, transvestistas, androgynous and some cases of genderqueer). One usually classifies the andromimetofilia like an abnormal sexual standard of behavior or parafilia as in the fetishism transvestist.

Ginefilia or ginecofilia is a term that refers to a boss in the sexual behavior in which one feels sexual attraction for individuals of the feminine genre, without importing the type of sexual orientation that is present. The ginefilia or ginecofilia it can appear like a regular sexual boss inside the classification of the sexual orientations in the case of: a masculine heterosexual, a feminine homosexual, a bisexual one and a pansexual. The term is used usually as a concept of less extension that recounts only the bosses cronofilicos of the attraction for adult persons of the feminine genre or to the attraction for pubescentes or post-pubescentes of feminine genre. Ginemimetofilia or ginecomimetofilia is a similar term to ginecofilia that recounts to the attraction for feminine individuals that they present cultural or social features that conditionally are assigned to the persons of the feminine genre in the traditional society, being able to be applied also in some cases to masculine transgenero (transsexuals, transvestistas, androgynous and some cases of genderqueer). One usually classifies the ginemimetofilia like an abnormal sexual standard of behavior or parafilia as in the fetishism transvestistes.

The terms androfilia and ginecofilia can be used by them to refer to the sexual preference of a person, without the consideration on its real sexual orientation. Sometimes they work like an ethical substitute who tries to eliminate the conventional classification of the sexual orientation like heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual; applying the terms androfilia and ginefilia to eliminate the cultural associations of the homosexuality with the femininity and the masculinity, independently of the sex or identity of genre of indivduo.11

Sexual orientation

The criteria of the sexual orientation can be classified inside the parameters of the monosexuality and the polysexuality; being the heterosexuality and the homosexuality categories of the monosexuality; while the bisexuality and the pansexualidad fall down under the parameters of the polysexuality. Significantly there are considered to be three main sexual orientations, the heterosexuality, the homosexuality and the bisexuality. Other orientations can be considered to be specific sexual orientations or can be catalogued like a variant of some of the primary sexual orientations, like the pansexualidad that is catalogued often like a variant of the bisexuality. Another category includes not recognized sexual orientations, like the demisexualidad and the antrosexualidad. The asexualidad is an absence of sexual orientation.

Heterosexuality

The heterosexuality (of the Greek έτερος, "heteros" that it means differently and the suffix sexuality) a social term is used to refer to the sexual or emotional attraction towards persons of the opposite sex, being marked by the complementacion of binary genres (pairing of masculine and feminine).12 The heterosexuality is a valuable sexual behavior in diverse animal species, which constitutes a sexual majority in the population average of certain species, that is to say, is a very frequent standard of behavior between the individuals of the same species. The heterosexuality is an evolutionary model that defines the reproductive sexual behavior of the species, being evident with the adaptability, complementacion of the gonads and the compatibility of the reproductive cells between two individuals of the same species.

The heterosexuality is established like a social model perceived in the traditional notions of the family, the sexuality and marriage. East traditional social model frecuentemenete fits to the heteronormatividad and the heterosexismo to establish different standards of behavior and different cultural aspects that, practically, suppress the possibility of other variants of the orientation sexual. The heterosexuality, due to its population majority, has placed itself socially like a boss of the social aspects inside the religion and it her politicize. The political and religious models of the heterosexuality in the society often stipulate the social heteronormatividad, like a norm, but like a stipulation that he supposes to the heterosexuality as a population majority naturally designated or a form of life in the population majority, relapsing into the aspects of heterosexismo.

Homosexuality


Flag LGBT.
The homosexuality ("homo" that it means equally and the suffix sexuality) the social term is used to refer to the sexual or emotional attraction towards persons of the same sex. The homosexuality does not have a frame based on the binary complementacion of the genre for the reproduction, but it establishes two possible variants: the homosexuality that concentrates the pairing of a masculine one with masculine other and relations that it pairs to a feminine one with feminine other. Popularly he is called a homosexual woman a lesbian; a homosexual man is met popularly like gay, although the adjective also applies women homosexual. The homosexuality is a type of natural conduct shown between the standards of sexual behavior of different species animales.20

The different variants of the sexual orientation, there are an object of study due to its origin and bio-social determination. It is established that the homosexuality is determined for distitos elements that surround the individual, being a prenatal determination and adquirida. The homosexual conduct, including the homosexual conduct of the bisexuality, it is a sexual minority considered the counterpart of the heterosexuality. This conduct is suppressed by the social standards of the heterosexuality, the heteronormative and heterosexism.



Bisexuality


Flag of the bisexuality.
The bisexuality is a sexual orientation that involves physical and/or sentimental attraction towards individuals of both sexes. 23 similar Terms as the heteroflexibilidad, the bicuriosity, the pansexualidad and the polysexuality are usually catalogued under the criteria of the bisexuality, but the terms differ from this one. As the homosexuality, the bisexuality is evident like a natural sexual behavior in diverse species animales.

The heteroflexibilidad and the bicuriosity are fixed principally like sexual preferences in which there is had sexual contact or occasional emotional relations with persons of the same sex when a person identifies like heterosexual. The polysexuality it recounts to a variant in the classification of the sexual orientations in which there are catalogued the sexual orientations that take as an object of sexual attraction more than one genre or identity of genre, then, taking up office to the bisexuality and to the pansexualidad like subcategories of the polysexuality. The pansexualidad recounts to a variant of the bisexuality in which attraction sits down for persons of the opposite sex, of the same sex and persons of different identities of genre (transgender).

The bisexuality is a transitory fixation between the heterosexuality and the homosexuality as its place in the Continuum homosexual - heterosexual proposed by Alfred, that is to say, is a combination of the heterosexual conduct and the homosexual conduct. According to Sigmund Freud, the human being is born with orietacion sexually established as bisexual and similar it develops, acquires and unifies its sexuality towards only one orientation, already be heterosexual or homosexual.

Asexualidad


Flag of the asexualidad.
The asexualidad is defined as the absence of some type of sexual orientation, by what often it is not catalogued under the parameters of the sexual orientation. Inside the asexual conduct, the individual does not show sexual attraction towards any individual of any genre or genre 28 identity The term asexualidad also is usually used inside other contexts to define the absence of interest in practice of sexual intercourse with any type of person.

The asexualidad must not be confused with the sexual abstinence or the bachelorhood, which there are only the suppression of the sexual intercourse for religious or personal motives, without involving the suppression of the sexual desire. The asexual ones can experience an emotional attraction or desires of intimacia with other persons. 30 The asexualidad is accepted like sexual orientation by some specialists, but some others defer on having made sure that the asexualidad is not an orientation sexual. The asexualidad it is of relatively recent discovery and study; some organizations as Asexual Visibility and Education Network look for the recognition of the asexualidad as a sexual orientation that is catalogued under the psychological-social parameters of the classification of the heterosexuality, the homosexuality and the bisexuality.

Pansexualidad


Flag of the pansexualidad.
The pansexualidad or omnisexualidad is a human sexual orientation characterized by the esthetic, romantic or sexual attraction for other persons independently of its sex and its genre. Therefore, the persons pansexual can feel attracted by males, by women and also by those persons who do not feel identified with the dicotomiavaron/mujer or with that of masculine / feminine, including the personasintersexual, intergenres, cisexual and transsexuals. The pansexualidad is the aptitude to wish sexually another person independently of its genre. The pansexual affirm that for them the sex and the genre are empty meaning concepts or that they have no importance.

Demisexualidad


Flag of the demisexualidad.
Demisexualidad is a term minted by Asexual Visibility and Education Network that it recounts to the sexual attraction exclusively towards persons with whom previously stable emotional bonds have developed and of certain duration. Before it, the demisexual behaves like an asexual one and it even can come to be identified as such. The demisexualidad can be of fixation hetero and homosexual that they develop in a secondary sexual attraction towards persons with whom narrow affectionate ties have developed, while as primary sexual attraction shows an apparent orientation asexual.

Evolution and origin

There exist different theories that relate the origin of the sexual orientation as the product of a series of biological and social determinations to which the individual surrenders during its prenatal or post-native stage. The theories queer modern that they recount to the origin of the sexual orientation usually favor the theory of which the sexual orientation owes completely to biological events that happen in the prenatal stage of the individual, pushing back the social components and its influence in the life of the individual due to a void relation between the familiar relations and the sexual orientation of one it chase 33 34 The studies of the sexual orientation are usually principally focused on the origin of the homosexuality and the bisexuality in the human sexual behavior, since it is presupposed to the heterosexuality like a proper natural model of the sexual reproduction, although also the heterosexuality is a study 35 object

Biological origin

The biological origin of the sexual orientation is usually explained in diverse theories. In diverse studies on the biological origin of the sexual orientation there are identified usually three main biological dimensions that might be determinants of the sexual orientation and diverse factors of the human sexual behavior; in these dimensions the theories qualify for its genetic origin, for its hormonal origin and for its structural origin.

Inside the theories of structural origin, merely biological, encuantran the theories of the animal sexual nature and the homosexuality in animals, also the human physiology that comprises the nervous system as regards the sexual orientation and the pushed back theory of which the orientations queer should to the pathological effects of a virus. The theories that correspond to the explanation of the sexual orientation like genetic origin normally base its theories on the possibility of existence of a specific gene or model of determination evoluctiva that explains the different variants of the sexual orientation. The theories that correspond to the explanation of the sexual orientation like hormonal origin usually emphasize the biochemical determination of the sexual orientation, product of the alteration of the action of the hyponuptial bed due to its exhibition to sexual hormonal agents in the prenatal stage.

Animal nature


Matching between Coccinella septempunctata copies.
The heterosexuality is a type of frequent behavior in distitntas forms of the animal kingdom due to its natural stipulation as reproductive precursor in the animal species that govern its reproductive cycle for the sexual reproduction, identified naturally with the complementacion of the declarations of the sexual dimorphism gonadico, that is to say, the natural reproductive characteristics that they identify to the binary genres of certain animal species. The heterosexuality is evident like a natural biological model that complements the process and natural need for the species of the continuity of the same one, basing on the evolutionary modification by means of the combination of the material genetico of both ancestors to produce descent with singular characteristics that combines the attributes of two samples of the same species, unleashing a mutation that allows the perpetuity of the species in the model of the selection native. The evolutionary characteristics of the natural selection allow the development of corporal adequacies that allow the fertilization and the genetic combination of two individuals of the same species in a generational product. Naturally, the species that govern its reproductive cycle in accordance with the sexual reproduction, present specializing organs that facilitate the fertilization at once of the coitus or matching.

The homosexuality and the bisexuality are standards of sexual behavior that can be appreciated in about 1500 animal species that, they can or not, to have an evolutionary relation with the family Hominidae to which the Homo sapiens belongs. The homosexuality and the bisexuality are recurrencias population in different animal species that they are evident like a biological variant of the animal sexual behavior. In the animal species that show homosexual conduct there are observed usually common standards of behavior that not necessary involve the homosexual coitus, but, in some occasions, it can be evident simply like the need of an individual to establish biosocial ties with individuals of the same genre biologico.40

The observation of the animal homosexual behavior in species is caused of a contemporary study of the models queer that try to base the human homosexual behavior as a common biological variant on different species. In the study of the bosses of animal homosexuality Joan Roughgarden, Bruce Bagemihl and Paul Vasey is recognized like the global introductores of the investigations on the homosexual naturalness in animal species foreign to the human one. The standards of behavior sexual animal related to the homosexuality and the bisexuality are evident in a less population recurrence that heterosexuality 41 Few recurrence of orientations different from the heterosexual sexual majority sustains under the traditional model of the demography of the sexual orientation, what might suppose a slightly frequent biological variant in the sexual behavior of diverse species animales.42

The asexualidad can demonstrate like a type of animal sexual behavior with few population recurrence, since its biological origin assumes to the physiological determination and the hormonal capacity of an individual. The theory womb suggests the determination of the asexualidad like the low or void sensitive answer of the testosterone according to the sexual excitement or a type of determination in. The model of the animal asexualidad bases its specification on the model of the animal homosexuality, due to the population existence of individuals belonging to animal species who have not been castrated, which do not experience any type of heterosexual sexual behavior or homosexual.

Gay virus

Gay virus or gay germ is a pushed back theory and not based of the biological origin of the homosexuality, which beginning suggests the existence of a human virus that provokes the homosexual behavior. The theory was proposed by Gregory like an explanation of the human homosexual behavior related to the clinical positions of the theory microbiana of the illness. The theory was establishing that the homosexuality was a behavior caused by the presence of a virus, which was unleashing pathological answers that were deriving in the alteration of the cerebral structure of the infected assumption. Cochran and Ewald concluded that the supposed virus was concentrating on urban areas, which inhabitants were more inclined to pick up the virus since a major population persons index existed out in areas urbanas.

Cerebral structure and sexual orientation

The theory of the cerebral structure as regards the sexual orientation is based on the structural and physiological analysis of the cerebral shape and the declaration of physical differences between heterosexual persons and homosexual persons (obtained differences of the analysis of the hyponuptial bed, determinant encephalic section in the natural processes of the human sexual behavior).47 The theory of the cerebral structure suggests that the determination of the sexual orientation of an individual depends on the structure and development of the hyponuptial bed in the physiological shape of the subject, development that can present to itself in distitnos biochemical processes that relate to the determination theory in womb.

The difference in the cerebral structure corresponds to each of the genre binary and the different sexual orientations, since valuable differences appear in the proportion of the hyponuptial bed of the samples as its genre or sexual orientation. In the year 1990, Dick, determined typical of the cerebral sexual dimorphism that was evident in a different size proportion in the nucleus supraquiasmatico between heterosexual men and homosexual men (study that established the base to determine the components biological of the determination of the transexualidad). The experiment of Swaab and Hofman consisted of the subjection of copies of rats to the treatment with ATD (1,4,6-Androstatriene-3,17-dione), an Inhibiting chemical component that avoids the transformation of the testosterone in estradiol, capable of altering the social and sexual behavior animal. The experiment concluded in the results presentation in three different rats populations. The rats that were treated pre-natalmente and post-natalmente with ATD they presented a major quantity of neurons concentrated on the nucleus supraquiasmatico, in addition to that a sample of the above mentioned population presented bisexual behavior. The third rats population did not surrender to any treatment, therefore it did not show extraordinary behaviors. The obtained results of the observation of the group of rats served as base for the hypothesis that he suggests that a high number of neurons vasopresoras in the nucleus supraquiasmatico of a masculine homosexual adult can be reflected in the differences in the interaction of the sexual hormones and the prenatal cerebral development and post-natal. The estradiol is often related to a structural importance that ties it to the differentiation of the cerebral structure of both binary genres, being able to take results as a prenatal hormonal determinant of the sexual behavior it humanize.

In the year 1992, Laura Allen and Roger Gorski established the proportion of the previous commissure in three different populations that there were containing 30 homosexual men, 30 heterosexual men and 30 heterosexual women. The results threw a difference in the proportion of the previous commissure of the samples, showing that the homosexual men were possessing previous commissures of major size, continued in porporcion for the samples of heterosexual women and heterosexual men, who registered a less size in the commissures anteriores. The study was recaptured by William Byne and Bruce Parsons in the year 1993, neither who registered different margins in the proportion of the previous commissure of heterosexual men and homosexual men, concluding in that the size of the previous commissures was variable and was not depending on genre, nor orientation sexual.

William Byne and Bruce Parsons suggest a hypothesis that the transgenero relates to the homosexuality, establishing a theory that he suggests that the behavioral features biologically established that are related to the genre differences facilitate the development of the homosexuality in masculine, experiment that is corroborated by the phenomenon of the homosexuality prestudied by the dissent of infantile genre. Byne and Parsons suggest that the above mentioned conducts are produced by hormonal effects in the cerebral cortex, and not in hipotalamo.56

Simon LeVay studied four types of neurons of the hyponuptial bed, so called INAH1, INAH2, INAH3 and INAH4. The neurons INAH result from big importance in the study of LeVay due to its function in the human sexual behavior and to the different proportion of size that they presented in masculine and feminine samples belonging to studies of previous years. The LeVay experiment consisted of the analysis of 41 brains of corpses identified with different genres and sexual orientations: 19 deceased homosexual men for AIDS, 16 heterosexual men (6 of which died of AIDS) and 6 heterosexual women (one of them dead of AIDS). LeVay did not find difference tests of size of the neurons INAH1, INAH2 or INAH4. Although the group INAH3 was seeming to be the size double in masculine heterosexuals than in that of the masculine homosexuals that would be of a size similar to the INAH3 of the brain of the feminine heterosexuals. The study is not completely accepted by its statistical insignificance and the possibility that the results were altered by the presence of death of AIDS in analysis 57

The LeVay experiment was recaptured by William Byne. Byne analyzed the neurons INAH of different human samples of 14 masculine deceased homosexuals of AIDS, 14 masculine heterosexuals (10 deceased of AIDS) and 34 feminine heterosexuals (9 deceased of AIDS). They found differences of size of the INAH3 between men and women, of a way similar to the study of LeVay. The size of the INAH3 of the homosexual males was looking like lightly a minor that that of the heterosexuals but major than that of the heterosexual women, although none of both differences had significancia statistical.

Dick determined that the sexual orientation owes completely to the hormonal reaction of the fetus with the testosterone liberated in the maternal gestation. The above mentioned reaction is determinant in the differentiation dimorfica of the product like a biological male or a biological female, reaction that also has effects on the nervous cells of the individual. This alteration in the nervous cells reinforces the theory of the determination in womb, attributing the sexual orientation to completely biological and not social events, because the homoparentalidad and the monoparentalidad have no effects in the sexual orientation of the infantes.

Genetic origin

Studies on twins


Gary and Larry Lane, actors and identical twins gay in 2012.
In diverse studies in twin, dedicated to analyzing the genetic statistical propabilidades of the homosexuality and the components of the same one, it has been a question of isolating the genetic facotres that porducen the homosexual behavior in human, based on the statistical coincidence of the homosexuality in twins of monozygote (phenomenon popularly named in the English speech like gay twins).

The original study is established by Michael Bailey and Richard Pillard of the University of Boston in the year 1991. The study behaved by means of the analysis of twins of monozygote and twins of dicigoto in a population survey. In the analysis of twins of monozygote, also called identical twins, one determined that a percentage of 52 percent in the analyzed population was presenting homosexual sexual orientation when another individual was presenting homosexual sexual orientation. In the analysis of twins of dicigoto, also called brotherly twins, one determined that 22 percent of the analyzed population was presenting homosexual sexual orientation when another individual was presenting homosexual sexual orientation. The results of the "shared homosexuality" between twins monocigoticos it established the hypothesis of the existence of a genetic component that determines the sexual orientation of an individual genetic 64 by means of a group of genetic variants of the genetic polymorphism and the heredity. The study of Bailey and Pillard it was corroborated by Scott L. Hershberger in the year 2001, where it demonstrated the clear existence of a genetic component in the determination of the sexual orientation, due to the concordacia in heterosexual and homosexual sexual orientation that monozygote individuals presented that Michael Bailey analyzed in the reproduction of the analysis original 67, with the support of Michael P. Dunne and Nicholas G. Martin, realized a population census on the sexual orientation of twins of monozygote and dicigoto that were living in Australia in the year 2000. As result of the census, one determined that 30 percent of 4900 twins monocigoticos polled, they turned out to be both homosexual.68

Chromosomal ligament and gay gene

Dean Hamer headed a population survey in the year 1993 of the genetic analysis of 76 masculine brothers gay and the analysis of its respective genealogical precedents. The survey threw the population coincidence that it was establishing that the homosexual males were presenting a major quantity of homosexual relatives in its maternal branch than in its paternal branch. These results promoted the study of the familiar precedents of masculine homosexuals, and the analysis and genetic trailing of the tyings of the X-chromosome in its genetic map. Hamer established the hypothesis of the existence of a particular gene that determines the homosexuality (theory known as gay gene in the English speech) that was seeming to be transmitted maternalemtne and that seemed to be located in the groove of Xq28. Hamer eleigio 40 pairs of brothers who were presenting homosexual sexual orientation and it thought that 33 of them were sharing a set of five identical genetic scoreboards in the X-chromosome. Hamer brought in July 19 of 1993 for the pdf adult magazine Science, the possible existence of a gene or several genes that determine the sexual behavior of a heterosexual person or homosexual 69

The Hamer experiment was reproduced later by Stella Hu in the year 1995, who analyzed a population sample of homosexual men and determined that 64 percent of the genetic material was sharing the same scoreboard located in the groove Xq28 of the cormosoma X.70 Study later realized on the analysis of homosexual men (Study of Bailey of the year 1999; and the study of Macknight and Malcolm of the year 2000) and its genetics they establish different scientific discrepancies, since there did not manage to answer the results obtained by Hamer and Hu.71 Brian S. Mustanski it realized an analysis in the year 2005 on the finished genome of the individuals and the relatives of these in the experiments of Hamer and Hu. Mustanski found different hypothetical locus for the gene that determines the sexual orientation in 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, the last one showing a major relation with the maternal genetics (what would endorse the Hamer hypothesis).

In the year 2008 a light social answer happened on the interpretation, according to political organizations of religious and conservative bases in the United States, on the article Answers to Your Questions For to Sexual Better Understanding of Orientation and Homosexuality (2008) of American Psychological Association; this article establishes the possibility of that the sexual orientation can be determined in accordance with the interaction of biological and social factors, making sure that it is impossible to determine the exact causes of the homosexuality until now due to the nonexistence of scientific studies verificables. Before this publication steadied himself that American Psychological Association had pushed back the genetic theory of the sexual orientation, what was interpreted publicly like that this organization had affirmed that the homosexuality was acquired, voluntary, a psychiatric suffering or a condition psychologically ocasionada. does not know a verifiable official publication of American Psychological Association that sustains the expressed for the above mentioned organizations.

Although the existence is not known and locus I am necessary the "gene of the homosexuality", it points out to itself that there might be determined by the heredity of a gene polimorfico complex, that is to say, a rare gene that comprises several characteristics, but that can only show the only characteristic in the construction of fenotipo. At present there establishes a new model of the "homosexual genetics" that it decides for the presence of a gene polimorfico that there determines the feminizacion and the biological masculinizacion of an individual. The above mentioned model suggests the presence of the homosexuality as a possible recessive variant of the sexual orientation heterosexual 78

Evolutionary determination

The natural model of the heterosexuality presupposes an adjustment of the organisms animiales to the processes of the sexual reproduction. The evolutionary determination corresponds to the model of the natural selection like determinant of the sexual orientation, being related to the theory of the animal netualeza. The heterosexuality bases its model on the natural genres complementacion for the reproduction processes. In the human case, the heterosexual sexual orientation is a model that assures the reproduction because it fits physiologically to the complementacion of sperm cells and gonads to produce the replicacion of the species. Inside the evolution of the sex, the animals have evolved to acquire a certain reproductive device and additions of courtship dimorficos, proper of biological females or males biologicos.79

A theory that concerns the genetic origin of the homosexuality and the bisexuality, stipulates the possible existence of a gene in the construction cromosomatica that determines the homosexual sexual conduct in the human being. There exist animal species in which the sexual bosses and sexual ambiguity are caused by evolutionary processes detonated by genetic changes, producing metamasculine and metafeminine copies, such is the case of the species Drosophila melanogaster (species that several genetic similaridades shares with the human species).8 80 in the same theory of the genetic origin of the homosexuality it is established that the homosexuality can be transmitted to the descent by the figure materna.81 Also it is supported that the maternal identity of the homosexual descent has a major capacity of fecundity than the maternal identity of the heterosexual descent, suggesting to the homosexuality like an evolutionary natural selection model designed to reduce the level of fecundity of a generation of a species (homosexual descent), since the previous generation of the species (maternal identity) was possessing the sufficient fecundity to produce more copies of species.

Hormonal origin

It is suggested that the sexual orientation is defined from the birth and that it depends on the aptitude of the fetus to react to different hormonal agents who it submit to chemical processes of the monosexualizacion in womb. The fetus is submitted to the action of the testosterone liberated by the maternal organism, unleashing the sexualizacion of the fetus when the testosterone between in contact with the fetus, or some contact does not exist; the contact with the testosterone will allow the evolution of the fetus as a biological male and its void contact will produce the evolution of the fetus like a biological female, although other variants as the sexual ambiguity can happen and the physical androginia when irregular levels exist in the contact of the testosterone due to an action of the antigens maternos.83 This theory relates to the maternal identity with the origin of the homosexuality.

In the year 1990, Dick determined the cerebral differences of the nucleus supraquiasmatico between heterosexual men and homosexual men. The experiment of Swaab and Hofman consisted of the subjection of groups of rats to the treatment with ATD, an Inhibiting chemical component that avoids the transformation of the testosterone in estradiol, capable of altering the social and sexual behavior animal. The experiment concluded in the results presentation in three different rats populations. The rats that were treated pre-natalmente and post-natalmente with ATD they presented a major quantity of neurons concentrated on the nucleus supraquiasmatico, in addition to that a sample of the above mentioned population presented bisexual behavior. The third rats population did not surrender to any treatment, therefore it did not show extraordinary behaviors. The obtained results of the observation of the group of rats served as base for the hypothesis that he suggests that a high number of neurons vasopresoras in the nucleus supraquiasmatico of a masculine homosexual adult can be reflected in the differences in the interaction of the sexual hormones and the prenatal cerebral development and post-natal. The estradiol is often related to a structural importance that ties it to the differentiation of the cerebral structure of both binary genres, being able to take results as a prenatal hormonal determinant of the sexual behavior it humanize 89 William Byne and Bruce Parsons they suggest that so much the transgenero and the homosexuality owe to hormonal effects happened in the cerebral cortex, experiment that is endorsed by the phenomenon of the homosexuality prestudied by the dissent of genre infantile 90

Dick F. Swaab and Alice Garcia-Falgueras determined in a study of 2010 that the human brain shows a differentiation dimorfica as the fetus is submitted to natural hormonal agents in the development gestacional inside the maternal body, estabeciendo the origin of the homosexuality as a completely biological event caused by biochemical events in womb. The brain of the product develops as a result of the assimilation of the maternal hormones that promote the sexualizacion (hormones liberated by the maternal organism that promote the differentiation of the fetus, that is to say, incite to the corporal development of the fetus so that it differs like masculine or like feminine). The sexualizacion of a fetus depends on the assimilation of the fetus and its reaction catalizante or void reaction with the testosterone; in case of reacting with the testsosterona liberated by the maternal organism, the fetus it will assimilate the masculine form, in case of not reacting with the testosterone, will take the feminine form. The testosterone will act in different magnitudes inside the organism, what would produce different biochemical effects on the nervous cells of the fetus, being evident in several sexual possibilities that should affect the genre identity and the sexual orientation of sujeto.91 This theory reinforces the theory of the sexual orientation as product of the hormonal action in utero. The theory serves like base for the studies queer modern that push back all kinds of social or psychological component inside the determination of the sexual orientation (principally the homosexuality and the bisexuality), since 96 has demonstrated that the familiar ambience monoparental or homoparental no type has effect in the identity of genre or the sexual orientation of the infante submitted to the interaction with saying ambience.

As variants of the theory of the sexual orientation like a hormonal process in womb establish additional theories as the theory of the effect of the order of birth of the brothers and the theory of the dissent of infantile genre like a process entirely biological. The theory of the effect of the order of birth of the brothers suggests that a major homosexuality probability exists in masculine individuals who descend from a chain of births of other masculine individuals, that is to say, the homosexuality in a person is more probable if this is the least of a series of previous masculine births (older brothers). This process is determined by a maternal hormonal action that is established by an estrogen accumulation in the possible feminine births that turned into masculine births. This theory reinforces the theory of which the sexual orientation is determined by processes hormonales.97 The incorformidad of infantile genre it is a psychological phenomenon in which an individual prepubescente does not identify with the sociological and psychological bosses of its genre, on the other hand it is identified by those of the opposite genre. This way, a precursor of the homosexuality thinks to this phenomenon, after 99 alters the genre identity of individual 98

The bisfenol A (BPA) is a present chemical component in several plastic articles (refractory, canned food and plastic packings), which is usually recognized by its hormonal effects in the human body and to be registered like causer of diverse sufferings like: cancer, precocious puberty, obesity, sexual powerlessness, alterations in the mammary development, unfertility, limited sexual desire, etc. The bisfenol A is usually identified like a possible component of risk that affects the animal sexual behavior, because the BPA can behave like estrogen and alter the natural hormonal functions of the body it humanize 100 In the year 2010 there was done a scientific study in which they were applied dosis of BPA to several mice's specimens in order to observe the consequences of this chemist in the hormonal development; the results threw that the presence of BPA implies shorter reproductivity periods between the feminine specimens, in addition to an occasional cancer concourse endocrino.101

The relation of the BPA with the hormonal development of the homosexuality arises with the physiological investigation of the BPA like feminizador of the masculine hormonal chemistry, resulting in alterations endocrinas that propitiate the development of the physical feminizacion. [which?] In the year 2009 an experiment was published with macaques (Macaque fascicularis) in the one that an apparent behavioral feminizacion observed in the infantes who were submitted to dosis of BPA during the gestation; the masculine specimens showed a behavioral, social and sensory answer towards its mothers, similar to the answers of the specimens of feminine genre, East being marked seemingly with an identification conduct transgenero.102 study lifted a social answer that he affirmed that the population increase of the masculine homosexuality might be caused by the interaction of the BPA (used commercially from the year 1957) in the development in womb; although of esto it is understood that, according to the demography of the sexual orientation, the homosexuality is more problable in the population and current statistics due to the simple population duplication that exists from of the year 1950 marked with the period of the sexual revolution that allowed the free expression of the homosexuality abierta. In the year 2011 realized another experiment in which he submitted the BPA dosis to adult rats, rats that showed a feminizacion in its sensory answers, since its senses of spatial place were alike with the habitual senses of the rats of feminine genre, also it was observed that the rats male submitted to the BPA were stretching to be less attractive for hembras.108 an official and verifiable study is not known that posicione the homosexuality as a result of the interaction (adult, infantile or in womb) with the BPA.

Effect of the order of birth of the brothers

The theory of the effect of the order of birth of the brothers is a theory proposed by the sexologo Ray Blanchard, which establishes the origin of the homosexual sexual orientation in masculine due to the intervention of diverse hormonal processes unleashed by the maternal entity in the stage of gestation. The theory etablece that of a series of previous masculine births, increases the possibility of homosexuality in later masculine births, that is to say, to medidad that the cup of order of males' birth in successful births increases, propbabilidad of which a present later masculine fetus homosexuality increases. The theory is simply identified like the effect of the order of birth of the brothers due to the relation between the heterosexual masculine older brothers and its relation with the biological determination of the least masculine brother homosexual.

Blanchard established in 2004 that this effect of homosexuality predetermined by the birth of older brothers owed to the hypothesis of unchange maternal, who suggests that as the maternal identity obtains successful masculine pregnancies, it will experience a progressive immunization towards the antigens (testosterone) that will unleash the monosexualizacion of the fetus. This immunization achieved after every masculine pregnancy will develop in the maternal immune system, anti-masculine antibodies that will retain a percentage of the testosterone that needs the fetus to develop the monosexualizacion and the cerebral differentiation dimorfica, therefore in case of being a new masculine one, it will experience one "feminizacion cerebral" in womb that will be evident in the sexual orientation homosexual.

Blanchard suggested in the year 2008 that every successful masculine pregnancy would produce 33 percent of major probabilities to which the last masculine birth is homosexual, nevertheless, the existence of successful feminine pregnancies in the reproductive record of the maternal figure it reduces the above mentioned probability.

The environmental origin is a theory that attributes the establishment of the sexual orientation of an individual in the sociocultural elements that shape its environment. In the above mentioned theories there are included diverse hypotheses of psychological origin that are located to the sexual orientation like product of conscious or unconscious events inside the social and biological development of an individual.

Freudian theories

Be seen also: Psychological point of view of the homosexuality, Psychoanalysis and psychosexual Development.
The Freudian theories of the sexuality usually turn out to be excellent in the traditional, not medical explanation, of the human sexual behavior. Sigmund Freud believed that any human action was motivated unconsciously on a sexual impulse to which it was naming libido, event produced by an analogical transformation of energy of the sexual impulse. In the theory of the psychoanalysis of establece that the above mentioned impulses are suppressed, in such a way that they find an unconscious way of being evident according to the culture that surrounds to individual. The Freud positions they represented a sexual revolution to the Victorian morality that was concealing the human sexuality, contradicting it with the positions that any behavior takes a sexual component in the theory of the lçibido and that the infantes are completely sexual, proposing also, a model who was suggesting the shape of the infantile sexual desire psychosexual in the development theory.

Freud obtained diverse theories of the sexual behavior foreign to the heterosexual due to the studies of previous sexologia of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Magnus Hirschfeld. In a criticism of the work of the endocrinologist Eugen Steinach, who consisted of the transplante of the testicles of a homosexual man in a heterosexual man in an attempt for turning the heterosexual man into homosexual, Freud made sure that the Steinach work was excellent in the organic determinations of homoerotismo.119 120 In this sense, Freud was thinking that the experiment of Steinach was premature and that it should be a cash in altering the sexual orientation of a person only in cases in which the homosexuality was hard associated with typical physical characteristics of the sex it contract The experiment of Steinach was improbable due to the immune answer of both patients and the impossibility of the homosexuality like organic product of gonadas.

Between the articles of Freud about the topic Three Essays are On the Theory of the Sexuality and Some Neurotic Mechanisms on Jealousy, Paranoia and Homosexuality (1922). Freud was thinking that the human beings were born with a natural predisposition to the bisexuality, which was turning into heterosexuality or homosexuality in accordance with the psychological assimilations of the sexual object in the familiar novel of sujeto.123 The Freud belief on the initial bisexuality owes to the Victorian clinical notion of which the infantes were integrating two genres in its body due to the void declaration of the sexual dimorphism up to the stage of the puberty. Freud mentions that certain cases of homosexuality owe the disforia to themselves in the heterosexual experience, provoking an investment of the libido sexual 124 in its object

The feminine homosexuality as the Freud perspective was analyzed in the essay The Psicogenesis of a Case of Homosexuality in a Woman (1920), where it describes the case of a young woman who is submitted to the psychoanalysis by its parents, in waiting of which some of these methods was "treating" it of the lesbianism. In the essay, Freud captures its considerations that the homosexuality was not an illness or a neurotic problem and that the therapy was not presenting any type of successful result, he was saying that to try to transform a homosexual in heterosexual, it was so impossible as to try to transform a heterosexual in homosexual.

In the psychoanalytic tradition of the Freudian school (academic followers of the theories proposed by Freud) there is established the homosexuality as a product of diverse events that an individual suffers in the stages of the psychosexual development, where a heterosexual ripeness does not happen due to an aftereffect in any of these etapas. The Freudian school traces an origin of the homosexuality in the phallic stage and the relations edipicas with the ancestors, in that the individual will identify with the identity parental of the opposite genre and will acquire the sexual preference of the above mentioned identity (Example: a male who identifies with its mother, will develop the preference androfilica that this one observes in its mother), without managing this way, the ripeness heterosexual.

Familiar ambience and social determinants

Be seen also: Family monoparental, Homoparentalidad, Complex of Edipo and Electra's Complex.
In not contemporary notions of the sexual orientation it is presupposed, according to the popular notion, that the heterosexuality is a predominant sexual orientation that is a product of the correct upbringing of the infante, which can be altered by different factors. There occur rarely indentificarse different popular beliefs that they were recounting to the origin of the homosexuality, between that there is located the homosexuality as product of a social contagion, like product of not conventional family or like product of psychological traumas. Most of these theories are usually pushed back since they are irrelevant in the determination of the orientation sexual.

In the determination of the sexual orientation as the familiar ambience, different theories are established. The theory of the heterosexuality as product of a healthy familiar ambience is pushed back, due to the population probability of another type of sexual orientations present before themselves in healthy familiar ambiences and slightly healthy familiar ambiences. This model is preassumed mistakenly in accordance with that the healthy familiar ambi

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